National Geographic : 1960 Jul
miles of water, seven inhabited islands of Hawaii span some 400 miles of the Pacific. From north west to southeast they carry the music of their Polynesian names: Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii (see the 10-color Atlas Map distributed to members with this issue). These are not so much islands as the tips of tremendous mid ocean mountains, thrust up by vol canic eruptions. Hawaii, capped by Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea two and a half miles high, is not only the largest of the chain, the "Big Island"; it is the tallest moun tain mass on earth, rising from the ocean bottom for a total ascent greater than Mount Everest's (dia gram, page 34). Britain's voyaging Captain Cook, searching for the fabled Northwest Passage, blundered on the Ha waiian group in 1778. He reported of his first encounter with the na tives: "Several small pigs were purchased for a sixpenny nail." Today pork costs a dollar a pound in Honolulu markets, and there are precious few Hawaiians left of pure Polynesian heritage. Hawaii holds 600,000 resident American citizens, 32 percent of Japanese extraction, 29 percent Caucasian, 11 percent Filipino, 6 percent Chinese, and the rest a blend of other bloods-including 2 percent pure Hawaiians. Twenty years after Cook's land Racing Toward Waikiki, a Surf Rider Teeters Between Sky and Sea Sun-soaked beaches, lofty mountains, and balmy tem peratures make the Nation's newest State a mid-Pacific paradise. Mark Twain called the archipelago "the loveli est fleet of islands that lies anchored in any ocean." Braced for a turn, this surfer at Waikiki Beach exhibits championship form at 40 miles an hour. 2 KODACHROME© N..S .