National Geographic : 1960 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRA~P1 S ety Washington 6,D C 16th & M Streets N.W . Washington 6, D. C. NatlonaI Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED IN 1868, "FOR THE3INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGR A KNOWLEDGE"* 0 The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 17 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman LYMAN J. BRIGGS ALEXANDER WETMORE Chairman Emeritus Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND MATTHEW W. STIRLING HUGH L. DRYDEN Research Associate A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Smithsonian Institution Director, U. S. National Museum WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of The Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) ROBERT B. ANDERSON BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Secretary of the Treasury Editor, the Washington Star LYMAN J. BRIGGS President, Associated Press Director Emeritus, National THOMAS W. McKNEW Bureau of Standards Executive Vice President LEONARD CARMICHAEL National Geographic Society Secretary, Smithsonian Institution WALTER K. MYERS, M.D. L. O . COLBERT Physician Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired MELVIN M. PAYNE HUGH L. DRYDEN Vice President Deputy Administrator, National National Geographic Society Aeronautics& Space Administration LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER ROBERT V. FLEMING President, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc. Chairman of the Board and Jackson Hole Preserve Riggs National Bank JUAN T. TRIPPE CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, Pan American President, E. I. du Pont World Airways de Nemours & Company EARL WARREN MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chief Justice of the United States Editor, National Geographic ALXA RWT ALEXANDER WETMORE ELISHA HANSON Research Associate General Counsel Smithsonian Institution National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND LLOYD B. WILSON Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa Retired, formerly President peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Air Transport Association CONRAD L. WIRTH CURTIS E. LEMAY Director, National Park Service Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force U. S. Department of the Interior H. RANDOLPH MADDOX WILLIAM E. WRATHER Vice President, American Tele- Director, U. S. Geological phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS, WM. T. BELL, CHARLES P. BIXEL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS. Asst. Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WM. H. McCAULEY. Assoc. Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A . C. Arens, Executive Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman of the Board; Leon J. Canova, Administrative Assistant Copyright © 1960 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any Part of the cotents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U. S. A. Second-class potage paid at Washington. D. C., and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For material used. generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shot Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Howell Walker M Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor: Stuart F. Jones Editorial Staff: Jules B. Billard. Robert T. Cochran, Jr., Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, Jacob Hay, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, James A. Reynolds, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Central Files) EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Katherine Crapster, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Paul Jensen, Robert M. McClung, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Louise F. Althoff, Newton V. Blakeslee Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kip Ross, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Director ofPhotography: James M. Godbold Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Dean Conger, Bates Littlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Joseph Baylor Roberts, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.), John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling Engraving & Printing:Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern, Catherine Hart (Asst.) CartographicArtists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Sheldon Cary, Owen R. Anderson, Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott Procurement:John P. M. Johnston Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E. C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Flowers and a head of rice adorn a maiko's hair for the Japanese New Year (page 766).