National Geographic : 1961 Apr
Battlefields Map Traces a Nation's Conflict ARMIES MARCH to the drumbeat of the past across your Society's newest map, Battlefields of the Civil War. Atlas Plate 14, distributed with this issue to 2,700,000 member-families, presents a fas cinating blend of cartography and historical research. Official records and eyewitness reports contributed to this remarkable eight-color map. It provides an invaluable supplement to NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC features marking the Civil War Centennial.* Based upon the original map used by Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to plot his 1864 campaigns, the double Atlas Plate portrays the vast arena of the epic struggle that beset the Nation from 1861 to 1865. Hundreds of notes illu minate the sites that shaped history. Those printed in blue describe events prior to April 1, 1863, the war's approximate mid-point. Those in red relate subsequent developments. Railways are shown in green and roads in 450 orange, as they existed in the 1860's. Place names are spelled as they were at that time. Rarely in warfare have the naked facts of geography played so decisive a role. Short ly after war erupted in Charleston Harbor in 1861, the commanding general of the Union Army, Winfield Scott, proposed a way of ex ploiting the geographic vulnerability of the South. His pattern for victory became known as the "Anaconda Plan." Scott reasoned that, with a naval block ade sealing off the Southern coastline, an advance down the Mississippi Valley would sever the Confederacy from its western States and squeeze the southeast in a python like grip. Union armies driving from the Mis sissippi could then reduce either sector while the other remained isolated. Anaconda Strategy In Action Although never formally adopted, Scott's strategy was borne out by the four bitter years of victories and defeats, setbacks and advances that followed. In the map inset at lower right, blue lines depict major Union offensives; red lines indicate Confederate attacks. Dashed lines show the great cavalry raids of both sides. One such dashed red line, snaking out of Kentucky, traces Gen. John Hunt Morgan's spectacular 1,000-mile raid into the heart of KODACHROMEBY JAMES R. ROOT, NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSTAFF © N.G.S.