National Geographic : 1961 Apr
Unschooled in war, these same American troops forever altered the science of military strategy. Since no immutable doctrine from previous conflicts had been impressed upon either army, each was free to use the resource fulness inherent in the American character. The respective armies solved in their own way the problems they encountered; their innovations transformed the art of war. Rifled cannon and breech-loading repeat ing rifles forced the development of new tac tics; the telegraph enabled commanders, for the first time in history, to exercise simulta neous control over widely separated armies; railroads and river steamers provided new mobility for troops, permitting the rapid transfer of large units from one theater of operations to another. Submarine mines (electrically fired) and booby traps were widely used in the Civil War, as were wire entanglements and pon toon trains for quick bridging of rivers. When the ironclads U. S. S. Monitor and C. S. S. Virginia- actually the rebuilt Federal 441 identifies the Confederate batteries that bombarded the Union bastion a century ago KODACHROMEBY THOMAS J. ABERCROMBIE, NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC STAFF © N.G .S.