National Geographic : 1961 Dec
NEW ATLAS MAP OF CANADA Young Titan of the North RIGHT AFTER the exploration crews came the city planners. That's why Lynn Lake, in the rugged northwest of Can ada's Manitoba Province, is more than just one of the world's great nickel deposits. It's the very model of a modern boom town. Where all was forested wilderness 10 years ago, rows of neat houses stand (opposite). They hold all that a housewife could desire, except food freezers. These are unnecessary. Dig a few feet down, and the ground is per manently frozen-fine for storage. Lynn Lake typifies the kind of change charted on the National Geographic Society's new map of Canada. Latest plate in the So ciety's Atlas Series, it reaches members as a 10-color supplement to this issue.* Riches Locked in Ancient Stone Canada ranks second in area behind the Soviet Union, followed by China, the United States, and Brazil. To help visualize the vast resources spread across Canada's wilderness, place a dinner plate over the map, centering on Hudson Bay. The land covered will comprise the heart of the Canadian shield-some of the oldest rock on earth, spread over seven times the area of Texas, rich in iron, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, silver, and copper. But the terrain is difficult, settlement is thin, and transporta tion becomes a prime problem. To carry away minerals, one must build highways or railroads. Lynn Lake has such a railroad, and so has the three-year-old nickel town of Thompson, Manitoba. Along the Labrador-Quebec bor der, look for Schefferville and Wabush Lake; from there iron ore rolls south to the port of Sept Iles on the St. Lawrence River. Near-by Port Cartier, still being built, receives iron from new mines at Gagnon, 140 miles north. Much of this ore travels the St. Lawrence Seaway to the mills of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Like a red thread, the new Trans-Canada 820 Highway runs 4,877 miles from Victoria on the Pacific to Nova Scotia and Newfound land on the Atlantic, spanning major water gaps by ferry. Motorists see 12,000-foot peaks of the Rockies, the bountiful prairie lands, the Lake Superior wilderness-a breath-tak ing cross-section of all ten provinces (an alter nate route offers ferry service to Prince Edward Island). Only a 90-mile stretch appears in dashed lines, in Canada's Glacier National Park, Brit ish Columbia, where snowfall one year meas ured 54 feet. This stretch is to be finished next year; in one section, where the snow piles deepest, 2,300 feet of the road will be under an arched steel roof. Meanwhile cars must loop 177 miles around the Big Bend of the Columbia River. Dominating the top of the map are the Northwest Territories, covering a third the area of the United States, yet holding bare ly 23,000 inhabitants-fewer than the people doing business every day in the biggest office building in Chicago. Here lone trading posts receive supplies once a year, by means of "cat swings," treks by tractors pulling sleds. The Territories' chief town is the gold mining center of Yellowknife on Great Slave Lake, newly reachable by road. Yellowknife boasts Canada's northernmost golf course, where tournament contestants each June 21 tee off in the dawnlike glow of midnight. The winding line of red tree symbols marks the northern limit of wooded country. Near the map's top left corner, where the tree line meets the Arctic Ocean, appears the brand new town of Inuvik, dedicated only last July. It stands on piles of wood and steel driven into the permafrost. This will prevent the houses from sinking into mud when the soil above the permafrost turns slushy-a prin cipal cause of the downfall of neighboring Aklavik. Far across the sweep of the Territories, on the southern end of Baffin Island, flourishes the town of Frobisher Bay, on an inlet first visited in 1576 by Englishmen, Martin Fro bisher and his armored band seeking the Northwest Passage. Now modern jet planes climb from a 9,000-foot paved runway into northern skies. *Canada, twenty-eighth in the series of uniform-sized maps issued as supplements in the past four years, be comes Plate 19 in the Society's Atlas Series. To bind their maps, a quarter-million members have ordered the con venient Atlas Folio, at $4.85. Single maps of the series, at 50 cents each, or a packet of the 21 maps issued in 1958 60 at $8.25, may be ordered from the National Geograph ic Society, Dept. 92, Washington 6, D. C. A combination of the 21 maps and folio is available at $12.50.