National Geographic : 1962 Apr
NATIONAL GEOGRA T Soceet 16th & M Streets N.W Washington 6, D. C . National Geographic Magazine 0S - , SS * * 0 5- The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 180 expeditions and scientific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world-famous National Geographic Magazine, its 21 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries Committee for Research and Exploration LEONARD CA LYMAN J. BRIGGS Chairman Emeritus Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Director, U. S. National Museum RMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of the Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Execu tive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) ROBERT B. ANDERSON Secretary of the Treasury, 1957-61 LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ELISHA HANSON General Counsel National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, the Washington Star President, Associated Press WALTER K. MYERS, M.D . Physician MELVIN M. PAYNE Executive Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service U. S . Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: CHARLES P. BIXEL, OWEN R. ANDERSON. Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON. Asst. Treasurer: WM. H. McCAULEY. Assoc. Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A . C. Arens, Executive Assistant, Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board. Copyright © 1962 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U. S. A. Second class postage paid at Washington. D. C .. and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For material used. generous remuneration is made. 4 COVER: Brisk trade wind on her quarter,Bounty nears Tahiti, end of the voyage (page 436). MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Senior Assistant Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff. Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Kip Ross, Volkmar Wentzel Issue Editor: Rowe Findley EditorialStaff Jules B. Billard, William P. E. Graves, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, James A. Reynolds, Peter T. White; Rose T. 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