National Geographic : 1965 Jul
NATIONAL /.>' : GEOGRAPHIC ^ : SOCIETY ii WASHINGTON, D.C. Organized"for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" -'1^ '- :i '' -^.----'to >^ The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 285 explorations and re search projects, adding nnimmeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAI. (;io GRAPIIC; more than 28 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGII, Vice President and Associate Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WM. T . BELL, IlIRBERTT. HENDERSON,C. VERNONSANDERS,AssociateSecretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE T. DALE STEWAR Vice Chairman Director, Museum o MELVIN M. PAYNE History Vice Chairman Smithsonian Instituti Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT MATTHEW W. ST HUGH L. DRYDEN Research Associate CARYL P. HASKINS Smithsonian Instituti A. REMINGTON KELLOGG JAMES H. WAKEL Research Associate C ADL Snithsonian Institution CONRAD L. WIR' Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND PAUL A. ZAIIL and the Senior Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary T f Natural ion IRLING on IN, JR. 'H BOARD OF TRUSTEES GIIBERT GROSVENOR. Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1951) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932 1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL BENJAMIN M. McKEILWAY Vice President Editorial Chairman, Washington Star National Geographic Society MELVIN M. PAYNE LEO OTIS COI.BERT Executive Vice President Rear Admiral, 1U.S. Coast National Geographic Society and Geodetic Survey, Retired LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLIER iUGH L. DRYDEN Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Deputy Administrator, National Brothers, Inc., and President Aeronautics & Space Administration Jackson Hole Preserve ROBERT V. FLEMING JUAN T. TRIPPIE Advisory Chairman of the Board Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Pan American World Airways Riggs National Bank FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH CRAWFORD H. GIREENIWALT Assoc. Editor, National Geographic Chairman of the Board, 1. I. duPont JAMES II. WAKELIN, JR. de Nemours & Company Former Assistant Secretary of the MEILVILL BELL GROSVENOR Navy for Research and Editor, National Geographic Development CARYL P. HASKINS EARL WARREN President, Carnegie Chief Justice of the United States Institution of Washington ALEXANDER WETMORE EMORY S. LAND Research Associate Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Smithsonian Institution Retired, formerly President I.LOYD B. WILSON Air Transport Association Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa CURTIS E. LEMAY peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Former Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force CONRAD L. WIRTH Ih. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Director Vice President, American Tele- National Park Service phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) U. S. Department of the Interior WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. LOUIS B. WRIGHT Chairman, Board of Governors Director, Folger Shakespeare Federal Reserve System Library Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDIRSON, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst.Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Judith N. Dixon, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board SCOVER: Budapest's spired Parliament Building, rising beside the l)anube, welcomes U. S. canoeists (page 55). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR. Associate Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kenneth MacLeish, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, John Scofield, Howell Walker Senior Staff Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel; Kip Ross (Research) Issue Editor: Rowe Findley EditorialStaff: Wayne Barrett, Louis de la Haba, Joanne M. Hess, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Robert P. Jordan, Elizabeth A. Moize, Frank Sartwell; Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster Parkhurst Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Assoc. Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Asst. Chief), Ross Bennett, Goode P. Davis, Jr., Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, John J. Putman Geographic Art: Newman Bumstead (Chief); William Palmstrom (Asst. Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Gilbert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nichol son. Research: George W. Beatty, Walter Q. Crowe, Eugene M. Scheel Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Margery G. Dunn, Mary Ann Harrell, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Margaret Ladd, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Thomas Y. Canby, Lea Ridgley Fuller, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat, O. Mac White News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade, Sabin Robbins, Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); Guy Blanchard, David Cooper Phototypography: Robert C. Ellis, Jr. (Chief); John McConnell (Asst. Chief), Elizabeth L. Donley Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell Editorial Administration: Patricia M. Watkins ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E . Garrett, Mary S. Griswold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts. Chief of Film Review: Richard H. Stewart Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Con ger, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson PictureEditors: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.) . Librarian:Alan J. Lessel Photo Lah: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving& Printing:Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer: Wellman Chamberlin Associate Chief Cartographer: Athos D. Grazzini Asst. Chief: William T. Peele. Base Maps and Revisions: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); David W. Cook, John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor); John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. Geographic Names: Richard J. Darley (Super visor); Carol J. Cunningham, Donald A. Jaeger, Manuela G. Koguto wicz, George E. Stuart. Oceanography: Apphia E. Holdstock. Map Edit ing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor); Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers. 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Horan, New York Copyright © 1965 National GeographicSociety, 17th and M Streets N.W .. Washington, D. C. . 210is:3.All rights reserved. Reproductionor use of the whole or any part of the contents with out written permission is prohibited. Printed in U.S.A. Second class postage paid at Washing ton, 1). C. . and at additional mailing oitices. Cover design and title protected by interna tional trademark.