National Geographic : 1963 Jan
some 33 feet to a similar but larger cylindri cal chamber, where they stayed seven days. Their temporary home contained two rooms, one a living space, the other a work shop. From it the frogmen swam out each morning, building concrete fish houses and planting plastic kelp to lure sea creatures. Their shelter was linked with the surface by air pipe, power line, telephone, and televi sion. It had running water, heat, and light. A doctor visited the men each day. When one diver developed a toothache, a dentist swam down with a drill. Both experiments, designed to test man's reactions to prolonged periods under great pressure, foretell a day when technicians may make extended undersea searches for oil or other minerals, or workmen may stay down for days or weeks at underwater farming or construction projects. Divers Excavate Byzantine Ship Most archeologists comb the dust for their finds, but George Bass, of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, seeks his on the floor of the eastern Mediterranean off the coast of Turkey. There he and his colleagues, sent by the museum and your Society, last summer excavated the ruins of a Byzantine ship. A find of gold coins, showing the head of Hera- KODACHROMESBY LUIS MARDEN (LEFT) AND W. D. VAUGHN AND HS EKTACHROME(OPPOSITE) BY HERB GREER © N.G.S. clius, 7th-century Byzantine emperor, en abled them to date the shipwreck. From an inscribed metal bar they even learned the name of the skipper, George the Elder, who went down with his vessel. Mr. Bass and his crew adapt precise land dig and surveying methods to undersea con ditions. They set up underwater drafting frames, grids, and plane tables to prepare accurate charts of the wreck, use frosted plas tic to sketch locations, and attach plastic tags to their finds. "When the excavation is completed," says Mr. Bass, "we want a plan that would enable a shipwright to build a Byzantine vessel plank by plank and nail by nail." Not far away, on land, another team dug into the dusty past of the Old City of Je rusalem. Dr. Kathleen Kenyon, a British archeologist, is undertaking a seven-year research program supported by various or ganizations, including your Society. The first two years, just completed, pro duced reliable evidence on the location and extent of the city's early settlement, ancient walls, and sacred sites. There are indications that Jerusalem was much larger during the early Jewish kingdom than had been believed, that walls supposedly dating from the time of David and Solomon were actually built in Brass watch fixed the time of an earth quake that tipped Port Royal, Jamaica, into the sea in 1692. A National Geographic Smithsonian team mapped the sunken city. Drowned bottle found at Port Royal yields 267-year-old wine to a hypodermic needle. Aqua-Lunger plots position of cargo of a Byzantine ship that sank off Turkey 1,300 years ago. The Society and the University of Pennsylvania Museum support the work.