National Geographic : 1964 Mar
GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized"for the increaseand diffusion of geographicknowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 200 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 24 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L . O . COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Research Associate Smithsonian Institution Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND T. DALE STEWART Director, Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution CONRAD L. WIRTH and the Senior Officers of the Society BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LEO OTIS COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Advisory Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman of the Board, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star WALTER K. MYERS, M.D . Physician MELVIN M. PAYNE Executive Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Assoc. Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Former Director, National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior Asst. Secretaries: HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, CHARLES P. BIXEL, OWEN R. ANDERSON, Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Asst. Treasurer: WM. H. McCAULEY HERMAN J. A. C . ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board COVER: Tethered astronaut ventures out of a Gemini spacecraft: an artist's conception (pages 368-9). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Senior Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Barry C. Bishop, David S. Boyer, Kip Ross, Volkmar Wentzel Issue Editor: Jay Johnston Editorial Staff Wayne Barrett, Edward Cornish, Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, John R. Hoopes, Werner Janney, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Bart McDowell, Frank Sartwell, Peter T. White; Joanne M. Hess, Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster Parkhurst Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Ross Bennett, Seymour L. Fishbein, Mary Swain Hoover, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, Edwards Park, John J. Putman Geographic Art: Newman Bumstead (Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Gilbert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, William Palmstrom. Research: George W. Beatty, Eugene M. Scheel School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Lea Ridgley, Charles H. 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Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson Picture Editors: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A, Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.) . Librarian:Caro Stillwell Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief), Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Carl M. Shrader Guy W. Starling PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving& Printing.Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:Ralph E. McAleer Asst. Chief Cartographers:Wellman Chamberlin, Athos D. Grazzini Production Manager: William T. Peele. Base Maps and Revisions: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor); John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop. GeographicNames: Richard J. Darley (Super visor); Carol J. Cunningham, Donald A. Jaeger, George E. Stuart. Oceanography: Apphia E. Holdstock, David W. Cook. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera, Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart. SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Alien. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Procurement:J. P. M. Johnston. Payroll: Marie S. Edwards. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: James Heermance, StanJennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt. Personnel: J. B. Mahon, Mary Louise Cross, Frank A. Holman. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D . EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. 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