National Geographic : 1964 Sep
NATIONAL t GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY z1 WASHINGTON, D. C. V Organized "for the increase and Cv diffusion of geographicknowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 200 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEO GRAPHIC; more than 28 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L . O . COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Research Associate Smithsonian Institution Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND and the Senior T. DALE STEWART Director, Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. CONRAD L. WIRTH PAUL A. ZAHL Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL WALTER K. MYERS, M.D . Vice President Physician National Geographic Society MELVIN M. PAYNE THOMAS H. CARROLL Executive Vice President President, George Washington National Geographic Society University LEO OTIS COLBERT LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller and Geodetic Survey, Retired Brothers, Inc., and President HUGH L. DRYDEN Jackson Hole Preserve Deputy Administrator, National JUAN T. TRIPPE Aeronautics & Space Administration Chairman of the Board ROBERT V. FLEMING Pan American World Airways Advisory Chairman of the Board FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH and Chairman, Executive Committee, FREDERICKtor, OSBURGe Riggs National Bank Assoc. Editor, National Geographic CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Chairman of the Board, E. I . du Pont Assistant Secretary of the Navy for de Nemours & Company Research and Development MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR EARL WARREN Editor, National Geographic Chief Justice of the United States EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, ALEXANDER WETMORE Retired, formerly President Research Associate Air Transport Association Smithsonian Institution CURTIS E. LEMAY LLOYD B. WILSON Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa H. RANDOLPH MADDOX peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Vice President, American Tele- CONRAD L. WIRTH phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) Former Director BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY National Park Service Editorial Chairman, Washington Star U. S . Department of the Interior Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A. C . ARENS, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A. C . ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board 4 COVER: Peace Corps Volunteer Rhoda Brooks says goodbye to the Ecuadorian villagers whose lives she has shared for twenty months (page 344). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Senior Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Issue Editor: Samuel W. Matthews Senior Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Stuart E. Jones, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Kip Ross, Volkmar Wentzel Editorial Staff: Wayne Barrett, Edward Cornish, Rowe Findley, John R. Hoopes, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Robert P. Jordan, Bart McDowell. Frank Sartwell, Peter T. White; Joanne M. Hess, Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Cor son (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Elizabeth A. Moize (Correspondence); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster Parkhurst EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Ross Bennett, Seymour L. Fishbein, Mary Swain Hoover, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, Edwards Park, John J. Putman Geographic Art: Newman Bumstead (Chief); William Palmstrom (Asst. Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Gilbert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson. Research:George W. Beatty, Walter Q. Crowe, Eugene M. Scheel School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Thomas Y. Canby, Lea Ridgley Fuller, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Louis de la Haba, Matt C. McDade, Sabin Robbins, Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief) Phototypography:Robert C. Ellis, Jr. (Chief); John McConnell (Asst. Chief), Elizabeth L. Donley Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Mary Ann Harrell, Levenia Loder, Patricia Rosenborg GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville, Edward C. Schulz Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell EditorialAdministration: Patricia M. Watkins ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors:Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Mary S. Gris wold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts. Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson Picture Editors: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S.Patton, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.) . Librarian:Caro Stillwell Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief), Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Asst. Chief Cartographers:Wellman Chamberlin, Athos D. Grazzini Production Manager: William T. Peele. Base Maps and Revisions: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor); John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop. Geographic Names: Richard J. Darley (Super visor); Carol J. Cunningham, Donald A. Jaeger, George E. Stuart Oceanography:Apphia E. Holdstock, David W. Cook. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera, Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey. Payroll and Retirement: Joseph B. Hogan. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: James Heermance, Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt. Personnel: J. B . Mahon, Mary Louise Cross, Frank A. Holman. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D . EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery, New York Advertising Manager: Harley L. McDevitt, New York Chicago: William Turgeon. San Francisco Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan Automotive Manager:William A. Boeger, Jr., New York Copyright © 1964 National GeographicSociety, 17th and M Streets. N.W. . Washington. D. C.. 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U.S.A. Second class postage paid at Washington. D. C. . and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark.