National Geographic : 1965 Sep
NATIONAL T' GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D.C. Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization tfor increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 285 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL (;rtO (RAPImic: more than 28 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVINOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor LEONARD CARMICHIAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, HERMAN J. A . C . ARINS, WM. T . BELL, HERBERT T.HENDERSON,C.VERNONSANDERS,AssociateSecretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LIONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WITMORE Vice Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT HUtGI I., DRYDEN CARYL P. HASKINS A. RIEMINGTON,,KEL LOGG Research As:socl'it Smithsonian Ins.irt tion Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND T. DALE STEWART Director, Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution MATTHIW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. CONRAD L. WIRTH PAUL A. ZAHL and the Senior Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic So'ciety, and Editor of its magazine (1899-195 1 THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932 1962) LEONARD CARMICHAIL BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Vice President EditorialChairman,WashingtonStar National Geographic Society MELVIN M. PAYNE LEO OTIS COLBERT Executive Vice President Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast National Geographic Society and Geodetic Survey, Retired LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER HUGH L. DRYDEN Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Deputy Administrator, National Brothers, Inc., and President Aeronautics & Space Administration Jackson Hole Preserve ROBERT V. FLEMING JUAN T. TRIPPE Advisory Chairman of the Board Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Pan American World Airways Riggs National Bank FREDERICK G. VOSBURGHI CRAWFORD H. GREI NEWA.T Assoc. Editor, National Geographic Chairman of the Board, E. I. duPont JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. de Nemours & Company Former Assistant Secretary of the MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Navy for Research and Editor, National Geographic Development CARYL P. HASKINS EARL WARREN President, Carnegie Chief Justice of the United States Institution of Washington ALEXANDER WETMORE EMORY S. LAND Research Associate Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Smithsonian Institution Retired, formerly President LLOYD B. WILSON Air Transport Association Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa CURTIS 1'. LrMAY peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Former Chief of Staff, I. S. Air Force CONRAD L. WIRTH I. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Director Vice President, American Tele- National Park Service phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) U. S. Department of the Interior WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. LOUIS B. WRIGHT Chairman, Board of Governors Director, Folger Shakespeare Federal Reserve System Library Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDERSON, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: 111I.LEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY IHElRMAN J. A . C . ARINS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Judith N. Dixon, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board 4 COVER: F-105 'Thullnerchiefs streak past lFujiyama on their \way to Yokota Air Base, Japan (pages 202-3). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR. Associate Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kenneth MacLeish, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, John Scolield, Howell Walker Senior Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Wil liam Graves. Stuart E. Jones, Nathaniel T. 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Donley Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell EditorialAdministration: Patricia M. Watkins ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Mary S. Griswold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts. Chief of Film Revieu: Richard H. Stewart Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Con ger, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson Picture Editors: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patron, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.). Librarian:Alan J. Lessel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. 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