National Geographic : 1950 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R . HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAH Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army, Retired. President, American Red Cross WALTER S. GIFFORD Honorary Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Tele graph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff ANDREW H. BROWN Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant ESTHER ANN MANION Librarian WILLIAM A. KINNEY Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director, General Motors Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LIUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Iivision KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SI T TIIERLAND Editorial Staff HOWELL WALKER Editorial Staff CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty-two years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made. The Society has sponsored more than 1oo scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Amnericas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. c . (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U . S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,00ooo, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional aIlpropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1950. by National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in.Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.