National Geographic : 1950 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer IIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAH Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CIARLES E. RIDDIFOR Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLI Cartographic Staff GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Adv GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army, Ret President, American Re WALTER S. GIFFORD Honorary Chairman of tl American Telephone a graph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Reti LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau Standards, Retired ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Constructi U. S. Navy, Retired; I Air Transport Associ GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lightho Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Iivisic National Geographic M JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH MAY Editorial Staff C LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff D F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff Chi IN ANDREW II. BROWN Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant ESTHER ANN MANION Librarian WILLIAM A. KINNEY ertising Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING ired. President and Chairman of the ed Cross Board, Riggs National Bank SB CHARLES F. KETTERING he Board Consultant and Director, Form nd Tele- General Motors Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN hired President Metropolitan Life R Insurance Company R of JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture on Corps, Ass res in, ALEXANDER WETMORE Asso ation Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR uses, Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR on, Assistant Editor, National Geographic Sec magazine Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS hlief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISIIERD ef Photographic Laboratory WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SI'TIIERLAND Editorial Staff HOWELL WALKER Editorial Staff CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice- President of the United States ILOYD B. WILSON erly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies I.. O. COLBERT ear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System OIIN OLIVER LA GORCE ciate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. IILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW retary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-two years ago, the National Geographic Society pub- by the National Geographic Society and the I. S. Army lisles this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote cended to the world altitude record of 72.395 feet. geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-IT. S. Army Air constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho than ioo scientific expeditions, some of which required tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This years of field work to achieve their objectives, was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back total eclipse of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern Inited States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $2500ooo and in addition $75,000 three hundred years, was given by individual members, to the Government _e ars. , .. when tle congressional allrolriation for tle Iurlose In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- we itufficient, sional a oia tl st o tie gio t teqoi trees tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California in tile Americas for which we have a date. This slab of were thereby saved for the American people. stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1950. by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington D. C., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.