National Geographic : 1953 Feb
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C . GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IILLEARY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Clairman, Research Coimmittee ALEXANIER WETMORE, Vice-Clairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President TIHOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. IANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer (GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense (CURTIs E. LEMAY General, U. S . Air Force, Cormmanding Strategic Air Cormmand LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired II. RANDOLPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S. Department of Agriculture (GEORGE It. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN l. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WET'MORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution IIHGH L. D)RYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. RATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey ELISHA IANSON Lawyer and Naturalist (ILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILIE BEIIL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD Ii. WAILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. (). COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Company JOHN OLIVER LA (ORtCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine 'EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S . Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. ICl'KNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DII To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty five years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes The National G;egraphic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve theirobjectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's researches solved secrets that had Ipuzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is en graved in Mayan characters with a date which means Novem ber 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. FFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, ascended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola a ton of scien tific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1!)49by The Society in cooperation with tlie Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will require four years to photomap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa tories all over the world. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burnma to the Aleutians. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAH F. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUTIERLAND Editorial Staff GEORGE W. LONG ANDREW Il. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE ('ONLY BEVERLEY M. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER. JR. LEONARD .J. (RANT Foreilgn Editorial Staff MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS, Ch W. ROBERT MOORE LuIs GARDEN H WELL WALKER Research Staff INEz B. RYAN MARGARET G. BE.I)S.OE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES MI. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN GEORGE CROSSETTE ATHOS I). GRAZZINI JOHN J. BREHIM RALPH E. RMALEER APPHIA HIOLDSTOCK RICHARD IARLEY School Service RI RALPH GRAY WILLIAM A. KINNEY News Service WINDsoR P. BOOTH, Chief ef,JOHN R. llooI'ES ief A advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Staff WALTER M. EDWARDS KIP Ross ANDREW POGGFENPOHL EDWARD C. FERRIDAY, JR. DEE JAMES ANDELLA IHERBERT S. WILBI RN, JR. ROBERT .1. IREYNOLDS CARO STILLWELL, Librarian PhotographicLaboratory EDWIN L. WISHERDt , Chief CHARDII. STEWART, Asst. Chief FRANK Ii. WVILi)DUNG Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STE:WART WILLARD It. CULVER J. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKMAR W ENTZEL JUSTIN LOCKE ROBERT F. SISSON JOHN E. FLETCHER DONALD M1BAIN Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT (Copyright, 1953, by National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. I'rinted iri U.S . A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. . as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec 1103. Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.