National Geographic : 1953 Jul
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEARY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN .1. BRI(GGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Comninttee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer GEORGE ('. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense ('CRTIS E'. LEMAY General, U. S . Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired II. iANDOLPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies DAVID FAIRCHIILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S . Department of Agriculture (GEORGE . PITlNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution HI GH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways XWILLIAM E. XVRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey I'LISHA IHANSON Lawyer and Naturalist (;ILBERT ( ROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MIELVILLE jEI.L (GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. () . (Col.BERT Rear Admiral U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNIEST E. NORRIs Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Company JOHN (LIVER LA (O()RCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine I: ORYl S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S . Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. M('KNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out tle purposes for which it was founded sixty five years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes The National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remulneration is made. In addition to tile editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back tlhe historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before ('olumbuls. By dating tile ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, Thle Society's re searches solved secrets that hlad puzzled historians for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4. 291 n. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and tlhe U. S . Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,39.5 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will photomap the vast reaches of space and provide tile first sky atlas for observatories all over the world. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile are from Burma to the Aleutians. A (Greek cargo shi sunk in the Mediterranean 2,100 years ago was found and raised in 1953 by tile National (Geogralphic Society-Cal.qpso Marine Expledition led by C(ommandant J. - Y. C(ousteai of thle French Navy. The National G(eographic Society and tlle Royal Ontario Museum in 195)1 expllored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed S100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest, in Sequoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the lHarvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAH I'. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff (EORGE W. LONG ANDIREW II. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY BEVERLEY AI. BOWIE LONNEILE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. LEONARD J. (RANT ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Administ; Foreign Editorial Staff MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS, ChI W. ROBERT MOORE LUIs GARDEN IIOWELL WALKER Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN MARGARET G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES MI. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BCMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD WVELLMAN CHAMBERLIN ATHOS ). GRAZZINI JoHN J. BREHIM RALPH E. McALEER APPHIA lHOLDSTOCK IlICHARD DARLEY School Service RALPH (RAY, Chief WILLIAM A. KINNEY News Service RIt WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief ration JOHN R. IIooPES Geoglraphi Research ief GEORGE CROSSETTE Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Assistant Illustrations Editor WVALTER MI. EDWARDS Illustrations Staff KIP Ross ANDREW POGGENPOIIL EDWARD C. FEHIDAY, JR. I)EE JAMES ANDELLA HERBERT S. \WILBURN, JR. ROBERT J. REYNOLDS CARO STILLWELL, Librarian PhotographicLaboratory EDwIN L. XVIStIERD, Chief CHARD It. STEWART, Asst. Chief FRANK II. WILDUNG Staff I'hotographers B. ANTIIONY STEWART WILLARD It. (ULVER J. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKMARI ENTZEL ROBERT F. SISSON JOHN E. FLETCHIER DONALD McBAIN Film Editor JOSEPIH M. RIDEOUT (opyright. 1953. by National Geographic Society. Washington. D.C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. suedan reserwdos todos los, derechos. I'rinted in U. S. A Entered at the Pos t Office at Washington, I). C. as Second (;lass Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917. Rutorized Juy 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States 'tnt Oliice. Marcs Registsada.