National Geographic : 1954 Mar
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEARY F. HIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN .1. BRICG;S, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Cormmittee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA (ORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary HERBERT T. HENDERSON, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MIARSHAILL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMIAY General, U. S. Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Coanlnnd LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired H. RIANDOLP'H MIADDOX Vice President, American Telephone and Telegraph Company DAVID FAIRCHIILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S. Department of Agriculture ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER \EETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution Hi(;H L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics RICHARD E. BYRD Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WVILLIAM E. RATHERR Director, U. S. Geological Survey GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine M.ELVILLE BEIL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WVILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired Formerly President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty six years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to thle editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being latde, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Colulbus. By dating the ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, Thle Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4, 291 B. c . (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, tle stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and tlhe U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will photomap the vast reaches of space and provide for observa tories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet made. In 1948 Thle Society sent seven expeditions to study tile sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile are from Burma to the Aleutians. A (;reek cargo ship suink in the Mediterranean 2,200 years ago was found and investigated in 1952-53 by tie National Geographic Society-Calypso Marine Archeological Expedition led by Capt. J .-V . Cousteau of the French Navy. Tlhe National Geographic Society and tle Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to lelp preserve for tile Amnerican people tile finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, tile Giant Forest in Selluoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for Tile Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAH F. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUTHERLAND GEORGE W. LONG Editorial Staff ANDREW II. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONILY BEVERLEY A. BowIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT KENNETH F. WEAVER JOHN SCOFIELD. NATHANIEL T. KENNEY JOHN R. IiOOPES ROSE T. IACBRYDE Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief LUIS MIARDEN FRANC SHOR HOWELL WALKER Librarian ESTHER ANN MAANION GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Assistant IllustrationsEditor Chief Cartographer \WALTER M. EDWARDS JAMES M. DARLEY Illustrations Staff CartographicStaff KIP Ross NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief ANDREW POGGENPOHL CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD EDWARD C. FERRIDAY, JR. WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN IIERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. ATHOS D. GRAZZINI CARO STILLWEI.L, Librarian JOHN J. BREHMI Staff Artist and Naturalist RALPH E. MICALEER WAITER A. WEBER APPHIA HOLDSTOCK RPHIA R OLDSARLYK PhotographicLaboratory RIChARD )ARLEY EDWIN L. WISHED, (:hief School Serice RICHARD I. STEWART, Asst. C(lief RALPH GRAY, Chief NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE Newls Service Staff Photographers WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief B. ANTHONY STEWART SAMUEL \V. MATTHEWS WILLARD R. CULVER Advertising J. BAYLOR ROBERTS GILBERT G. LA GORE, Director VOLKMAR WENTZEL Geographic RsROBERT . SISSON Geographic Research JOHN I:. FLETCHIIER G EORGE CROSSETTE IONALD McBAIN Editorial Research DAVID S. BOYER INEZ B. RYAN, Chief BATES LITTLEHALES MARGARET G. BLEDSOE PI'rinng Production Film Editor DEE JAMES ANDELLA JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT JOE AI. BARLETT (1 Copyright. 1954 by National Geographic Society. Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. . as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3. 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.