National Geographic : 1959 Dec
NATIONAL GEO National Geographic Magazine 16th & AM Streets N.W . S1c$ FOR THE INCREAE AD I O OF GI The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the la s of the rinited States as a nonproi t scien tilic and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geo graphic knowledge and promoting research and expr nation. Thlie Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scientific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world-famous National Geographic Magazine. its 1 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MEI.VIILE BELL GROSVENOR. President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FI EMING, Vice President and Treasurer MEI.VIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBI RGH. Vice President ROBERT E. I)OY ( E, Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LYMAN J. BRIGGS. Chairman ALEXANDER \VETMORE LEONARD CARMIC(HAEI. Vice Chairman Rear Adm. I. . I. . COL.BERT WILLIAM E. WRATHER HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KEI.I.OGG Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND Director, I. S. National Museum and the Senior Officers of The Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR. Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its Magazine (1899-195.1) JOHN ()LIVER 1IAGO)R(E. Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly President and Editor. National Geographic Society (1954-195-) I.YMAN J. BRI(GGS Director Emeritus. National Bureau of Standards IE(ONARD CARM ICHAEL. Secretary. Smithsonian Institution 1.. 0. (COLBIER T Rear Admiral,i1. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Retired 1 101i 11" DRk" l -1N GEORGE C. MARSHALL (;eneral of thie Arimy Formerly Secretary of Defense BENJAMIN M. McKEIWVAY Editor, the W\ashington Star President, Associated Press THOMAS W\. McKNEWV Executive Vice President National Geographic Society Deputy Administrator, Natinal MELVIN M. PAYNE Aeronautics & Space Administration Vice President ROBER'T V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAXVl)IO ) Ii.GRINEWALT President. E. I. du Pount de NeCniuir & Com)IpaIny MELVIl.IE EI .L GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic Magazine II.ISHlA H ANS)N (eneral C unseli National (Geogiapinc Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral. I. S . Navy, Retired, former President Air Transport Association CUR IS E. I.rIMAY Vice Chief of Statf. U. S. Air Forc H. RAND()IOPH MAIIDDOX Vice President, American Telephone & Telegrapl C)ompany LAURANCE S. ROCKEFEl.IER President, Rockefeller Brotlers, Inc., and Jackson iole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President. Pan American XVorld Airswas EARI. \ARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER \VETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution IILOYD B. WII.SON Honorary Board Chairman. Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WVIRTH Director. National Park Sei ire e U. S. Department of the Interior WIILLIAM E. \VRAl 1HER Director, . .S. Geological Survey. Retired Assistant Secretaries: VERNON IH. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. B EERS. \VWILLIAM I. BEI.LL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON; Assistant Treias urers: III.L1EARY F . HOSKINSON, II.IIAM H. McCA IIEY Herman J. A . C. AreIs, Executive Assistant, and Carol J. Cramer. Secretary o t he President rand Editor; I.cnore WXiilliams. Secreta to tliI lsxeuti e Vice President; Sibyl Peck. Assistant to Chairman, and I.con J. (Canoa, Assistant to Vice Chairman, of the Board (', lr?,righte 19l59 Nationa:l IGelraphicSociety. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of thIwi, ii ho iii ,, i li hiie iiW, iith-ilt writtin Ierrn i.ion is prohibited,. Printed in II. S. A. Sec lnd-ceias p<,stage paid at Washington. . , and at additi,,nal ma iling offce'. are desired- "or materialused, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR. Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW. Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scotield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, .uis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Ed wards, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor: Edward J. Linehan Editorial Staff: Robert T. Cochran, Jr., William P. E. Graves, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones. Howard LaFay, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Pat terson, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes) Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Paul Jensen, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Louise F. Althoff, Newton V. Blakeslee Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF Illustrations Editor: Hebert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kip Ross, Thomas R. Smith; Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artist & Naturalist:Walter A. Weber Director of Photography: James M. Godbold Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Bates I.ittlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Joseph Baylor Roberts, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volk mar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief); John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling. Film Editor: Joseph M. Rideout Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer: James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers: Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin. Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley. Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern. Cartographic Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administration: Sheldon Cary, Owen R. Anderson, Thomas I. Hartman, M.D ., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff, John S. Dameron, Gladys A. Stoneburner. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, C. Vernon Sanders, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott. Procurement: Charles P. Bixel (Director); John P. M. Johnston. Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E . Roscher (Director) Hulton House; Fleet Street; London E. C . 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley I. McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Brigantine Yankee roams South Asian seas in quest of adventure (page 771).