National Geographic : 1940 May
NEW MAP OF EUROPE RECORDS WAR CHANGES S WIFTLY marching events of the last few months have wrought many changes in the map of Europe. How lasting these changes will be no one can now predict. But to record these portentous shifts in boundaries and sovereignty, and to give an up-to-date and accurate background for the tremendous drama now being enacted, the National Geographic Society this month is sues to its world-wide membership of 1,100, 000 a revised and augmented map of Eu rope and the Near East.* This special supplement to the May num ber of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC M AGA ZINE shows, as of April 10, 1940, the em battled continent and its environs all the way from Africa to the Arctic and from Ireland to Iran, and includes the recent territorial changes in Poland and Finland. MAP SHOWS VITAL OIL PIPELINES That strategic zone perhaps best desig nated as the Middle East--from Suez to India and from the Caspian Sea to the Gulf of Aden-is shown in a timely inset. For the French and the British this area is vital, for upon it depend sea communica tions with the East and abundant supplies of that all-important sinew of modern mechanized war-oil. Prime targets in a 1940 war are the pipe lines through which the oil flows. On this new map pipelines are shown as red lines across desert and mountains. They lead from Romanian wells to the Black Sea and the Danube, from the rich fields of Iraq across the Syrian desert to Mediterranean ports controlled by the British or French, and from Iran to the Persian Gulf. Russian pipelines run from the Baku and other oil fields on the Caspian Sea to harbors on the Black Sea. Another snakes across the Kazak Republic to Caspian ports. To Germany vast supplies of Romanian and Russian oil are even more indispensable than is the oil of the Near East to the Brit ish-French war machine on sea and land, since the western powers have other sources. From the end of the World War of 1914 1918 until March, 1938, the map of Europe went virtually unchanged. The Versailles status quo prevailed for nearly twenty years. Then suddenly broke the gathering storm. Men marched and map makers have had to work fast to keep up with the rapid shift ing of boundaries. Big presses at Baltimore were whirling out copies of a new National Geographic Society Map of Europe in March, 1938, when Hitler's armies rolled into Austria and transformed it from an independent country into a province of the Reich. The presses were stopped and the green of Germany flowed over the place where independent Austria had appeared before. At the end of September, 1938, the Mu nich treaty gave Hitler the Sudetenland, and in March, 1939, Czechoslovakia vanished as an independent nation. Memelland, long held by Lithuania, was returned to Ger many less than a week later. Even in the seven months since The So ciety's map of Central Europe and the Med iterranean, sweeping changes have been made. Not only the Polish Corridor but Poland itself disappeared as a national entity in the German blitzkrieg of September, 1939. The new map shows how Poland has been par titioned between Germany and Russia, with Lithuania getting a share, and it indicates the German-dominated State, called the Government General of Poland, which has been set up around Warsaw. Farther north, the map shows the Fin nish territories acquired by the Russians at tremendous cost in human life in the David Goliath war which ended in March, 1940. They include the Karelian Isthmus where the Finns long held the Mannerheim Line. LAKE LADOGA'S NAME IS CHANGED The new frontier gives to the Soviet all of Lake Ladoga and adds a new name to geographic vocabularies, for the Russians call it Ozero Ladozhskoe. By contrast, Viipuri assumes a simpler form, Vipuri. Just north of Finland's wasp waist, Rus sia gains territory that includes another headline name, Salla. Vaitolahti, northern most and newest Finnish town, also goes to Russia, along with Finland's part of the Rybachi Peninsula. * Members wishing additional copies of the map "Europe and the Near East" may obtain them by writing to the National Geographic Society, Wash ington, D. C. Prices, in the United States and Possessions, 5041 on paper (unfolded) ; 75' mounted on linen; index, 25¢. Outside of U. S . and Pos sessions, 75¢ on paper; $1 on linen; index, 50¢. Postage prepaid.