National Geographic : 1942 Aug
Tmbes C1CjaYQ Cajamar ," Pao sma , ' Trra. orHr SalThve Rugged Andes, Rising 20,0 Feet Above the Coast, Form a Barrier iato Inland Per 9,9002o a ro or The Rugged Andes, Rising 20,000 Feet Above the Coast, Form a Barrier to Inland Peru Through this mountain wall no rivers flow to the Pacific. Peruvian ships from Callao serving the interior at Iquitos have to go through the Panama Canal, around the northern part of the continent, and up the Amazon, a distance of 7,000 miles, though it is only 625 air miles away. Within the secluded mountain heights, centering around Cuzco and Machu Picchu, the Inca civilization flourished before Spanish Conquistadores came. Because Peru is such a three dimensional land, The Society's cartographers carefully fashioned a clay model from accurate contour maps, then reproduced it here by photography. The boundary with Ecuador, long in dispute, was settled at the Pan American Conference in Rio de Janeiro, January 29, 1942.