National Geographic : 1943 Nov
Moscow's Pulsing Heart under Empire and Soviet, This Was Red Square Long before the Red Star Topped the Kremlin's Tower Red stood for the imperial purple as well as for the revolutionary flag. Muscovy's medieval princes ruled fromthe fortified Kremlin. Today itisthecitadel of Marshal Stalin, and its walls shade the common grave of Red Guards who stormed it in October, 1917. Many-domed St.Basil's Cathedral was built by Ivan the Terrible in 1555-60 to commemorate the conquest of Kazan. Under the Soviet Government it isamuseum. Unknown totheTsars was the granite mausoleum of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin, who shattered the last remnants of their power. Here in aglass coffin heliesembalmed. In1918 Lenin restored to Moscow the capital which Peter the Great transferred to St. Petersburg in 1709. Upon Lenin's tomb Soviet leaders reviewed themillions who paraded down Red Square twice a year. German bombs have damaged none of these monuments.