National Geographic : 1945 Aug
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President *GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Secretary THOMAS W. McKNEW, Acting Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE. Assistant Secretary *Died March 24, 1945 EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSV Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORI Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLI Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising CHARLES EVANS HUGH Formerly Chief Justice of I United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Teleph Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retir LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthous Retired THEODORE W. NOYES Editor of The Evening Sta L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Divisior National Geographic Ma JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor rENOR McFALL KERBEY MAYI Chief of School Service C LEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Editorial Staff D WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff Chie N F. BARROWS COLTON WALTE Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ES ROBERT V. FLEMING the President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank H. H . ARNOLD C lone and General of the Army, Commanding General, U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN ed President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company of EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired; Presid Chairman U. S. Maritime Commission ses, DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S . Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Potom Secretary Smithsonian Institution Potom . Ct GILBERT GROSVENOR S. Coast Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR J 1, Assistant Editor, National Geographic Assoc gazine Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS hief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISHERD f Photographic Laboratory ER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of the United States HARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States JUAN T. TRIPPE ent Pan American Airways ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WILSON President Chesapeake and ac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System OHN OLIVER LA GORCE iate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded fifty-seven years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than loo scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November Ii, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U . S . Navy Expe dition camped on desert Canton Island in mid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1937. The Society has taken part in many projects to increase knowledge of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,00ooo,and in addition $75,00ooo was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1945. by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C.. as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.