National Geographic : 1945 Dec
Oil for Victory Piped under the Sea Tugs Tow a Giant Drum, Unwinding Pipe as It Goes, Across the English Channel Twenty undersea pipelines were laid between England and France from such floating drums and from special ships. Through them up to a million gallons of gasoline per day were pumped direct to the Allied Expeditionary Forces after the invasion of the Continent. For secrecy the project was known as Operation Pluto, which stood for "pipeline under the ocean." British Official Like Thread on a Spool, Pipe Is Wound on a Drum Six floating drums, known as H.M.S . Conundrums, or "Conuns," were used in laying steel pipe across the Channel. Each could carry 70 miles of 3-inch pipe when fully loaded. Conceived originally in 1942, the gigantic project was carried out by British civilian engineers and manufacturers, with the cooperation of the British Army and Navy.