National Geographic : 1946 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H.BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OFTHE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LAGORCE Assistant DirectorofAdvertising CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly Chief Justice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner ofLighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S.Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief Research Division LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G.VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Chief ofSchool Service WILLIAM H.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V.FLEMING President and Chairman ofthe Board, Riggs National Bank H.H.ARNOLD General ofthe Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U.S.Army Air Forces LEROY A.LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company THEODORE W. NOYES Editor ofThe Evening Star DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U.S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor,National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W.ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff THEODORE F.KOOP Chief News Bulletin Service EDWIN L.WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division JOHN J.PERSHING General ofthe Armies ofThe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G.DAWES Formerly Vice-President oftheUnited States JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON Chairman oftheBoard Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor oftheNational Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OFGEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out thepurposes forwhich itwas founded fifty-eight years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts arein vested in The Magazine itself orexpended directly to promote geographicknowledge. Articles and photographs aredesired. For material The Magazine uses,generous remuneration ismade. In addition to theeditorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than ioo scientificexpeditions, some ofwhich required years of field worktoachieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons ofthe southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. Bydating the ruins ofthe vast communal dwellings inthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and theSmithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work ofman in the Americas forwhich wehave adate. This slab of stone is engraved inMayan characters with adate which means November 4,291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200oo years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals agreat center ofearly American culture, previouslyunknown. OnNovember 1I,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly bythe National Geographic Society and the U.S.Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,ascended tothe world altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton ofscientific instru ments, and obtained results ofextraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Navy Expe dition camped ondesert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed thesolar eclipse of1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects toincrease knowledge ofthesun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations offBermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 was given by individual members, tothe Government when the congressional appropriation forthe purpose was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees intheGiant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved forthe American people. One ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered inAlaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1946, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Enteredatthe Post Office atWashington. D.C., asSecond-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing atspecial rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3,1917, authorized July 1,1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.