National Geographic : 1946 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine For the second State symbol the judge selected what he called the grizzly or white bear (the silvertip bear), which he believed unknown out side that region. It represents power, courage, and hardihood, and suggests the great resources of the State and the character of its citizens. The buckled band encircling the State devices and the United States coat of arms (page 30) in dicates that, although Missouri and the United States form one government, they are separate for certain purposes. The motto around the circle is "United We Stand, Divided We Fall." Kentucky has the same motto (page 15). The crest over the arms is a helmet of gold with six bars, symbol of sovereignty. Above the helmet is a cloud with a constella tion of 23 stars. Drawings and descriptions of the seal show one star larger, but the big star does not appear on the impression in The Society's collection. The large star was intended to show Missouri rising to join the confederation of States and the difficulty besetting that at tempt, the Missouri Compromise. The supporters are Missouri bears; they sym bolize the fact that, although the people of the State support themselves by their internal strength, they also support the Federal Government. The bears stand upon a scroll inscribed Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto, "Let the good of the people be the supreme law." The date MDCCCXX is that of the State constitution. Seal is 2%4 inches in diameter. MONTANA, page 21. The territorial seal approved in 1865 by the first territorial legisla ture was adopted in 1893 as the State seal. Judge Francis M. Thompson, designer of the seal, stated: "The idea was to present the Great Falls of the Missouri as the centerpiece of the seal, with the sun shining over the Rocky Mountains, the buffalo and other wild animals then abound ing, the plow, the shovel and the pick, indicating our reliance upon agriculture and mining as the chief occupations of the people, with the timbered mountains showing their wealth of virgin forests." The buffalo and other animals "then abound ing" have now disappeared and are not men tioned in the description of the seal given in the Revised Codes of Montana, 1935. The words Oro y Plata, "Gold and Silver," refer to the State's mineral wealth. Seal is 2/2 inches in diameter. The design is used on the cornerstone and on the door knobs of the capitol. NEBRASKA, page 21. The first Legislature of Nebraska prescribed the seal in 1867. Me chanical arts are represented by the blacksmith; agriculture by shocks of grain and corn growing near the settler's cabin; transportation, which hastened the settlement of the State, by the train and by the steamboat on the Missouri River. When the capital of the State was moved from Omaha to Lincoln early in December, 1868, rumors were that an injunction would be served on State officers to prevent their moving the seal from the old to the new capitol. Thomas P. Kennard, secretary of state, went to the Omaha capitol on a Sunday morning, took the seal, wrapped it carefully, and put it under the seat of his buggy. He met the governor early on Monday morning and put the impression on the governor's proclamation that the capital of the State of Nebraska was at Lincoln, County of Lancaster, Nebraska, and is "now open for business." The legend on the seal, "Equality Before the Law," has had two interpretations. One is that it referred to slavery and the equal rights of people before the law, regardless of color. The other is that it referred to early controversies about public lands and expressed the frontier belief that every man should have an equal op portunity to obtain a home on the public domain. The idea for the design came from Isaac Wiles, a member of the Nebraska House of Representa tives, with additions by Judge Elmer S. Dundy. The artist is not known, but may have been an Omaha jeweler. Many efforts have been made to change the seal. It is 258 inches in diameter. NEVADA, page 21. The seal, adopted by the Legislature in 1866, has a plow, sheaf, and sickle in the foreground, representing agricultural resources. Immediately behind these devices are two large mountains with a quartz mill at the right and a tunnel penetrating the silver leads of the mountain at the left. A miner is running a carload of ore out of the tunnel near a wagon loaded with ore for the mill. In the middle ground, a train crosses a moun tain gorge; in pictures, a telegraph line follows the railroad, but this does not show on impres sion. In the background a range of snow-clad mountains is capped with the rising sun. The motto of the State, "All for Our Country," is carried on a scroll at the bottom of the seal, which is 234 inches in diameter. The 36 stars represent the number of States when Nevada was admitted to the Union, October 31, 1864. NEW HAMPSHIRE, page 21. Adopted in 1784 and confirmed in 1785, New Hampshire's seal was redescribed in 1931 when a new seal press was made from a drawing by Pierre de Chaignon la Rose. The design has been basically unchanged for more than 160 years. In the spring of 1945 the New Hampshire House of Representatives adopted a measure which would have changed the seal materially. but the State Senate by a small margin preserved the historic design. The sun rises behind a broadside view of the frigate Raleigh on the stocks. The United States flag, "as authorized by Congress on June 14, 1777," flies from an ensign staff at the stern. Pennants fly from a jury staff on the mainmast and foremast. The Raleigh was one of the first 13 vessels ordered for the American Navy; she was built at Portsmouth in 1776.