National Geographic : 1947 Jul
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LAGORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W.McKNEW, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H.BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee MELVIN M.PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research KURTZ M.HANSON, Assistant Secretary Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OFTHE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAI) Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W.WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director ofAdvertising CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly ChiefJustice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S . Navy,Retired; President, Air TransportAssociation GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S.Coast and GeodeticSurvey FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief Research Division LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G.VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Chief ofSchool Service WILLIAM H.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V.FLEMING President and Chairman ofthe Board, Riggs National Bank H.H.ARNOLD General ofthe Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U.S.Army Air Forces LEROY A.LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U.S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W.ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff THEODORE F.KOOP Chief News Bulletin Service EDWIN L.WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division JOIN J.PERSHING General ofthe Armies ofThe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G.DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON Chairman ofthe Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOIN OLIVER LAGORCE Associate Editor ofthe National Geographic Magazine J.R.HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes forwhich itwas founded OnNovember ii,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly fifty-nine years ago, theNational Geographic Society bytheNational Geographic Society and theU.S.Army publishes this Magazine monthly. Allreceipts arein-AirCorps, theworld's largest balloon, Explorer II,as vested in The Magazine itself orexpended directly tocended totheworld altitude record of72,395 feet. promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W.Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson Articles and photographs aredesired. For material took aloft inthegondola nearly aton ofscientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration ismade. ments, and obtained results ofextraordinary value. In addition tothe editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-UT. S.Navy Expe constantly beingmade, The Society has sponsored more dition camped ondesert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and than 100 scientific expeditions, some ofwhich required successfully photographed and observed thesolar eclipse years of field work toachieve their objectives, of1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back toincrease knowledge ofthe sun. the historic horizons ofthe southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations offBermuda, during which aworld crossed the Atlantic. Bydating theruins ofthe vast record depth of3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings inthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians forThe Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 three hundred years. was given byindividual members, tothe Government In Mexico, TheSociety and the Smithsonian Institu- when the congressional appropriation forthe purpose was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees tn January 16 939 discovered the oldest work ofman intheGiant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia in the Americas for which wehave adate. This slab of stone is engravedinMayan characters with adate which were thereby saved forthe American people. means November4, 291B.c.(Spinden Correlation). ItOne oftheworld's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200years anything heretofore dated inoutside thepolar regions was discovered inAlaska and America, and reveals agreat center ofearly American Yukon byBradford Washburn while exploring forThe culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1947. by NationalGeographic Society. Washington. D.C.International Copyright secured. Allrights reserved. Quedan reservados todos losderechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered atthe Post Office atWashington. D.C.,asSecond-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance formailing atspecial rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act ofOctober 3,1917. authorized July 1.1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.