National Geographic : 1948 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6. D. C. (GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER \VETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Cominittee JOHN OLIVER LA GOR(IGE, Vice-President .TIIOMAS W. McKNIE, Secretary VERNON II. BREAV STER, Assistant Secretary MEI-IVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretalv KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIILDEBRAND) Assistant Editor MELVIILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEW\MAN B TMSTEAD Research Cartographer CIIHARLES E. RIIDDIFORI) Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CIIAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant RAYMOND W. WELCII Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising CHARLES EVANS IIItGIIES Formerly Cliief Justice of the I'nited States WALTER S. GIFFORI) President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral I'. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, I1. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired I. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director I'. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKIN L. FISIIER Chief Illustrations )ivision, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEV Chief Research Division LEO A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREIERICK G. VOSBURGII Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICIOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank II. II. ARNOLD General of the Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. I)epartment of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHIER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARI) O\\WEN \VII IAMS Clief Foreign Editorial Staff \V. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff I.IIS MARI)DEN Foreign Edlitorial Staff THEII()OD)OR F. KOOP Chief News Bulletin Service EDW)IN L. WVISIIERI) Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MI-EAVERS E)\VARI)S Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON StTHIERLAND Editorial Staff JOHN J. PERSIING General of the Armies of The I nited States CHARLEI-S F. KETTEIRING President (General Motors Research (or poration CHARLES (;. DAWES Formerly Vice President of the IUnited States ELISIIA IHANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WVILSON Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Maga/ine J. R. IILD.)IEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than oo scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating thie ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion. January r6, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 29r B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II. 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and tlie I'. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-I'. S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for thie urpose was insufficient, and thle finest of thie giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, i938. Copyright. 1947, by National Geographic Society, Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los dereihos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marea Ilegistrdua.