National Geographic : 1948 Apr
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA (OR('E, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNI\W, Secretary VERNON II. BREAVSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. IPANE, Assistant Secretary KlRTZ M. IIANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THIIE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIILDEBRANI) Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant lEditor JAMES M. I)ARLEY Chief Cartographer NE\VMAN BU'MSTEAI) Research Cartographer CIIARLE'S 1E.RI)I)IFORD Cartographic Staff WEII.MAN CIIAM BERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND \V. \VELCII Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising CHARLES EVANS II'UGIIES Formerly Chief Justice of tlhe I'nited States WALTERI S. GIFFORI) President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Iirector National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GE;ORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREIERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BOR.AH Editorial Staff FREDI)ERICK G. VOSBURGII Editorial Staff LEONARDI C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM 11.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLT ON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of tihe Board, Riggs National Bank II. II . ARNOLD General of the Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISIIER Chief Illustrations Iivision MAYNARD OW\VI'N \VILI.IAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff \V. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff I.IS M \AR EN Foreign editorial Staff EIlWIN .. WIS111EIRD Chief Photographic L;aboratory WALTER MEAVIERS EI)\VARI)S Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustration I divisionn MASON Sl TlI1ERLANI) Editorial Staff JOIN J. PERSHIING General of the Armies of The I united States CHARLES F. KETTEIIRING President General Motors Research Corporation CHIIARLES . I)AWIES Formerly Vice-President of the I united States ELISIHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYI) B. WILSON Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GOREE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. HILDEBRANI Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty years ago, the National Geographic Society pub- by the National Geographic Society and the IU. S. Army lisles this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorcr II, as in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-I'. S. Army Air constantly being made, Tie Society has sponsored more Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tlan oo scientific expeditions, some of which required tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This years of field work to achieve their objectives, was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back total eclipse of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed thie Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $7500ooo three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- when the congressional appropriation for the purpose tion, January 16. 1939, discovered the oldest work of man was insufficient, and te finest te giant sequoia trees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of Caliornia stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which were thereby saved for the. American people'. means November 4, 291 . c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. (Copyrirt, 1948. by National Geraphic Society, Washington, D. C . International Copyright secured. All rihts reserved. Quedan reser iados todos aloderehs. I'rinted in U. S. A. AFntered at the PIost oce at Washington. ). (C.. as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailirg at slecial ratre of porstare ro.ii, for in Se. 113. Act of October 3. 1917. authorized July i. 1918. (Cover design and names registered in United Stats 'Patentflire. Mata Rcgi'strada.