National Geographic : 1948 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine Staff IPhtographer Maynard (OwnWilliams On Village Schoolteachers Turkey Pins Its Hopes for Rural Progress Basic problem of the Turkish Republic is educating its large peasant majority. To train teachers in rural know-how, the Government sends picked country youngsters to its Village Institutes (page 64). There they spend five years studying subjects ranging from art and literature to farming and sanitation. Women take courses in home economics, nursing, and midwifery. These girls attend the Institute at Hasanoglan, near Ankara. Central Anatolia is so dry that piles of salt shoveled up in the deserts and left uncovered for several years remain intact. Because the annual rainfall in desert areas of this region is less than eight inches, there is not enough moisture to dissolve the heaps of salt. In contrast to the scant rainfall of central Anatolia is the excessive moisture in the mari time district of the Black Sea near Rize, where clouds pour down more than 90 inches of water annually at the foot of the Kuzey Anadolu Daglari. Even the tea plant thrives in the sultry heat of that region. A Road Traveled by Xenophon A well-constructed road which leads to the old fortress of Erzurum, 6,400 feet above the sea, cuts through the Kuzey Anadolu Daglari and reaches the high regions to the southeast in a comparatively short stretch. At the beginning of this highroad, known before Xenophon marched along it with his 10,000, lies Trabzon, the Greek Trapezus, once the capital of the Byzantine empire of Trebizond. Long winters and heavy snows make fall planting hopeless here, and the peasants are obliged to rely entirely on the summer harvest and on cattle breeding for their livelihood. The Anatolian peasant supplies Turkey not only with cattle and most of its grain for bread, but with export crops such as figs, cur rants, tobacco, olive oil, cotton, wool, nuts, oranges, etc.