National Geographic : 1948 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GII.BERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORC(, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEIMING, Treasurer THOMAS \V. McKNEW, Secretary IIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman. Research Committee MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OF TIE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIILD)EBRAND) Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEV Chief (artographer NE\VMAN ltt'MST EAI) Research (Cartographer CI1ARI.E;S E. R1II1)IFORD Cartographic Staff WEILLMAN C('AMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND) \V. \VECI(1I directorr of Advertising GILBERT (;. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising CIIARLES EVANS II'GIIES Formerly Chief Justice of the Ignited States WALTER S. (;IFFORD Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. \VILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral I. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS )irector National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Ad\iral Construction Corps, I. S . Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GI'OR(;E R. PITNAM Commissioner of Iighthouses, Retired L. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKI.IN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAIl Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARI) C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank II. II. ARNOLI General of the Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCIIILD Special Agricultural Explorer. U. S . Department of Agriculture ALEXANI)ER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARI) OWEN \VILIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff \V. ROBERT MOO(RE Foreign Editorial Staff LtIS MAR tiDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWVIN I. WISEIIRI) Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAV'ERS EID\ARI)S Illustrations I)ivision KIP ROSS Illustrations I )i sion MASON STlTHERLAND Editorial Staff JOHN J. PERSIIING General of the Armies of Thle I'nited States CHARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CIIHARLES G. I)AWES Fornerly Vice- President of tie I united States ELISIIA 11ANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYI) B. WII.SON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVIR LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine S J. R. IIILI)IBRAND Assistant Editor. National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935. in a flight sponsored jointly sixty years ago, the National Geographic Society pub- by the National Geographic Society and the UI. S. Army lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote ended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert \V. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-I'. S. Army Air constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho than too scientific expeditions, some of which required tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This years of field work to achieve their objectives, was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back total eclipse of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3.028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, Tlihe Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75.ooo three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu when the congressional appropriation for tie purpose II Mexico, Tle Society and the Smithsonian Institu- was insufficient, and tlie finest ,of the giant sequoia trees tion. January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of were thereby saved for tle American people stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 201 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1948, by National Ge( graphi Soriety, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. Alt rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los rderehos. Printed in 1. S. A. Entre t the Post Office at Washington, D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for miling at special rate of postage provided for in Ser. i0l. Act of Otober :, 1917, authorized July i, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent tfi e. Marc itegistrada.