National Geographic : 1948 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6. D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCIE., Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS \V. McKNEW, Secretary IIERBERT A. POOLE. Assistant Treasurer VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research KE RTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THIE NATIONAL GEOGRAPIIIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIII)I'EBRAND) Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLIEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BIMSTEAD Research (artographer CHIARLES E. RII)D)IFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CIIAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMON)D W. \VELCAII I)ircctor of Advertising GILBERT G. I.A (GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising CIIARLEIS EVANS IIGHIES Formerly Chief Justice of tlhe I'nited States \VALTI'R S. (;IFFORI) Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. \VILLI:AM V. PRATT Admiral IU. S. Navy, Retired LVMMN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards. Retired EMORY S. IANI) Vice Admtiral Construction Corps, I. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. Pi'TNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O. COLHERTI Rear Admiral, Director U. S. Coast and (Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHIIER Chief Illustrations Division., National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARI) C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM 11. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARRO\VS COILTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant (;EORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank II. II . ARNOLD General of the Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General I . S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance (Company JI'AN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCIIILD Special Agricultural Explorer, I'. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER W\ETMORE Secretary Smitlsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVEN(OR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FIS I ER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN \VILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W\V.ROIBERT M(OO)RE Foreign lEditorial Staff IA.IS MARI)EN Foreign Editorial Statff ED\VIN I.. WISIIERI) Chief Photograp h ic Laboratory WALTEIR IME.\\1YERS EIl)WARI)S Illustrations D)ivision KIP ROSS Illustrations 1)ivision MASON St TIIERI.AND Editorial Staff JOIN J. PERSIING General of the Armies of The I nited States CHARLES F. KEITTERING President G(eneral Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DA\VES Fornierly Vice-P'resident of the nIited States ELIShA ItANSON Lawyer and Naturalist ILOVD B. WII.SON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVE'.R LA GOREE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R . IIILD)EHBRANI) Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 1oo scientific expeditions, some of wliich required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern I'nited States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating tle ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region. The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion. January 16, 1930, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 i. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates hb 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the I . S. Army Air Corps, tie world's largest balloon. Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72.395 feet. Capt. Albert \V. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-I'. S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was tie seventh expedition of lThe Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. WIilliam Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition 75.00ooo was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for lThe Society and the IHarvard Institute of Exploration. 1938. Copyright 1948. by Ntional Otoer ahic Society. Washington D.JC . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. S edan restrcados todo'sI s de'rechos. P'rintedl in I. S. A. Enntred at the Post Office at Washington. D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mail;n at special rate of pstatse provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Offltice. Marca Registrada.