National Geographic : 1949 Apr
The British Way 433 National Geographic Photographer I. Anthony Stewart Jolly Working Girls Enjoy a Bank Holiday on Hampstead Heath Though England is on a near-privation diet, nothing seems to damp the spirits of these young people. They even make a joke of the restrictions to show that they can "carry on" whatever happens. son was asked to consider what would happen if a chance cow were to stray on the line and get in the way of one of the engines traveling "at the rate of nine or ten miles an hour." "Would not that, think you, be a very awk ward circumstance?" "Varry awkward, indeed," replied "Geordy," in his Northumbrian accent, "for the coo!" The first great cotton mill was established by Richard Arkwright at Cromford, in Derby shire, in 1771. The famous Etruria pottery works were opened by Josiah Wedgwood in 1769. Matthew Boulton, friend of Franklin's and partner of James Watt (page 493), or ganized the great Soho engineering works at Birmingham. Dr. William Small, after resign ing his position as professor of mathematics at the College of William and Mary, in Vir ginia, joined Boulton. London, Pioneer of Department Stores Many of the early American visitors to Great Britain came to study our industrial progress. Henry Marchant, of Rhode Island, an observant traveler, visited in 1771 a fac tory of metal buttons, employing 800 hands at Bolton in Lancashire, and noted that it was lit by upwards of a thousand candles. At Nottingham he was impressed by the modern machinery in use and wrote: "The wheels for spinning the cotton also were very curious, one woman drawing 24 threads at once. . .. In two rooms there were at work at least 130 girls, all briskly singing at their work." * Thomas Jefferson, during his visit to Eng land, always on the lookout for information which would be of use to the young Republic, wrote in April, 1786: "I could write you vol umes on the improvements which I find made, and making here, in the arts. . . . One de serves particular notice . ..weknowthat steam is one of the most powerful engines we can employ; and in America fuel is abundant." * The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles. Vol. I, p. 304. Scribner.