National Geographic : 1949 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LAGORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H.BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M.HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LAGORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEV Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Directorof Advertising WALTER S. GIFFORD Chairman of theBoard American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director NationalBureau of Standards, Retired ELISIIA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LANI) Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy. Retired; President, Air TransportAssociation GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S.Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief IllustrationsI)ivision, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G.VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Chief ofSchool Service WILLIAM H.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V.FLEMING President and Chairman oftheBoard, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation LEROY A.LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U.S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L.WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff I.H.ARNOLD General oftheArmy, Retired Formerly Commanding General U.S.Army AirForces CHARLES G.DAWES Formerly Vice-President oftheUnited States LLOYD B.WILSON Formerly Chairman oftheBoard Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor oftheNational Geographic Magazine J.R.HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OFGEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out thepurposes forwhich itwas founded sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazinemonthly. Allreceipts areinvested in The Magazine itself orexpended directly topromote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs aredesired. For material The Magazine uses,generous remuneration ismade. In addition to theeditorial and photographic surveys constantly being made. The Society has sponsored more than lOO scientific expeditions, some ofwhich required years of field work toachieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons ofthesouthwestern United States to a period nearlyeight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic.By dating theruins ofthevast communal dwellingsinthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1039, discovered theoldest work ofman in the Americas forwhich wehave adate. This slab of stone is engraved inMayan characters with adate which means November 4,291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals agreat center ofearly American culture, previously unknown. OnNovember II,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly bytheNational Geographic Society and the IT.S.Army Air Corps, theworld's largest balloon, Explorer II,ascended tothe world altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton ofscientific instru ments, and obtained results ofextraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Army AirForces Expedition, from acamp insouthern Brazil. pho tographed and observed thesolar eclipse of1947. This was theseventh expedition ofThe Society toobserve atotal eclipse ofthesun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations offBermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,ooo, and inaddition $75,000 was given byindividual members, tothe Government when thecongressional appropriation forthepurpose was insufficient, and thefinest ofthegiant sequoia trees intheGiant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved fortheAmerican people. One oftheworld's largest icefields and glacial systems outside thepolar regions was discovered inAlaska and Yukon byBradford Washburn while exploring forThe Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1949. by National Geographic Society. Washington, D.C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos losderechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered atthe Post Office atWashington, D.C., asSecond Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing atspecial rate ofpostage provided for in See. 1103. Act of October 3,1917, authorized July 1.1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.