National Geographic : 1949 Aug
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer IERBERT A. POOLE. Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOIN OLIVER IA GORCE:, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BRE\VSTIR. Assistant Secretary MEIVIN M. PAVNE. Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. IANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVIIEI,F BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEV (hief ('Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CIIARLES E. RI)I)IFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCIH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSIIALL General of the Army, Retired Formerly Secretary ot State \WAITIER S. GIFF(ORI) (Chairman of tle Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WIIIlA\M V. PRATT Admliral '1. S. Navy. Retired LY\IMAN J. BRIGGS directorr National lBlreau of Standards. Retired ELIISIHA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. I,ANDI Vice Admiral Construction Corps. (. S. Navy, Retired; President. Air Trainsport Association GEORGE R. Plt'I'N.AM Co1mmissio(ner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division. National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBI'RGII Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROV' Chief of School Service W\ILLIAM IH. NICIIOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant (;EO R(; C ROSS IETTE Research Assistant \VILIAM A. KINNEV Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairnlan of the Board, Riggs National Bank CIIARLES F. KETTIERING 'resident General Motors Research Corploration IEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JI-AN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways I)AVII) FAIRCIIID) Special Agricultural Explorer, 1'. S. Department of Agriculture A.\ EXANI) ER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution G(I.BERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine IMEV IILLE1 BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National geographicic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISIIHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARI) O\IWE'N WILLIAMS ('hief Foreign 'EditorialStaff \V. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LI'IS MARI)EN Foreign Editorial Staft EDI)WIN L. WISHIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAVERS EI)\VARI)S Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SI' THERI.ANI) Editorial Staff II. It. ARNOLD General of the Air iForce. Retired ('IIARILES G. IDA\VES IFormrly Vice- President f thle i"nited States LO \'D) B. \VIISON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potoiac Telephone (ompaies I.. O. ('COI.BERT Rear Admiral, Director I'. S . Coast and G;eodetic Survey ERNEST I'. NORRIS President Southern Railway Svystemnl JOHIIN OLIVER LA,\ GOR('E Associate ,Editorof the National Geographic Magaziln J. R. I111,1)1EBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMA\S \W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II. 0I35, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub- by the National Geographic Society and the I'. S. Army lisles this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. mnents, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-1'. S. Army Air constantly being made. The Society has sponsored more Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, plio tlan 1oo scientific expeditions, some of which required tograplied and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This years of field work to achieve their objectives. was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back total eclipse of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern I nited States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. coimlmutal dwellings in tlihat region, Thle Societv's re searches solved secrets that hid puzzled historians for The Society granted 2500ooo,and in addition $75.ooo three hundred years, was given by individual members, t to te governmentt In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Instit- when the congressional alpproplriation for the pulrose In M ico,ir e Society ant1d the Smithsonian fnstit- was insufficient, and the finest of the giant stequoia trees tiol Jlanuary" 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Giant Forest ,ofSequoia National Park of California in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of were thereby saved for the American people. stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 201 n. ( . (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for lThe culture, previously unknown. Society and the Iarvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. yri t. 11949, by National Geograp.hic Soiety. Washinton I). 1, 18. International Copyright scureg All riUite es served. ()uedan r.eservdos g,,ss derei s. Printed inl tI. S. A. Enter d : t thie Post office ait Washington, 1). C,, as Second (lass Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at speaial iate of D>stage provided for in Sec. 11l03. Act )f October 3. 1917. lruthorized ,uly 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Ollice. Martla Registrada.