National Geographic : 1949 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAVNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE, Associate Editor J. R. HIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MEIVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. I)ARLEV Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CIIARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSIIALL General of the Armny, Retired ;Formerly Secretary of State WALTER S. GIFIFORI) Chairman of tle Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT \Admiral U.S. Navy. Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS D)irectlor National Bureau of Standards. Retired ELISIIA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LANI) Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. Pl TNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKI.IN L. FISIIER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FRE)IERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBI'RGII Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant WILLIAM A. KINNEY Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board. Riggs National Bank CtlARIES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Compllany JIAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCIILD) Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S . Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Clief Illustrations Division MAYNARI) OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff \. ROBERT MOORE Foreign EditorialStaff LUIS MARI)EN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAVERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTIIERLANI) Editorial Staff II. II . ARNODI) General of the Air Force. Retired CIIARLES (;. DAWES Formerly Vice-P resident of the nIlited States LLOYDI) B. WVILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potonac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral. Director I'.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey ERNIST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway Systeml JOIIN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. IIlI.)'EBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNIW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more thantoo scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern IUnited States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed tite Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast cotmmunal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1039, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 201 n. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72.395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in tie gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru mnents, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-I'. S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda. during which a world record depth of 3.028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $7500oo was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for tle Iprlpose was insufficient, and tlte finest of tlie giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. (opyriglt., 1949. by National og lph3i1S iety, W sr into l, D. i . International Copyright secured. All rights resered.. Quedan reservados tod loslsr.chos. Printed il. S. A. Entered at the Post ()it at Washlington, 1). C., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage' provided for in See. 1103, Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States P'atent Office. Marca Registrada.