National Geographic : 2010 Jun
• LIMPOPO FREE STATE WESTERN CAPE NORTH WEST KWAZULU- NATAL GAUTENGMPUMALANGA NORTHERN CAPE EASTERN CAPE GreatKaroo Nuweveld Range Robben I. Nelspruit Bloemfontein Pietermaritzburg Zwelethemba Helderstroom Grahamstown Mafikeng Johannesburg Upington Polokwane Kimberley Soweto Cape Town Ulundi Bhisho Welkom Pretoria (Tshwane) Nongoma Worcester NAMIBIA BOTSWANA ZIMBABWE SOUTH AFRICA MOZA MBIQUE LESOTHO SWAZILAND Orange 0mi 100 0km 100 Former homeland Swaziland and Lesotho, landlocked monarchies, gained independence from the United Kingdom in the s. SOUTH AFRICA AFRICA DISMANTLING APARTHEID Government programs to counter historic inequities between whites and nonwhites have met both success and frustration (graphics). South Africa has the continent's highest GDP, and its postapartheid economy overall has grown, in part because international investors no longer shun the country as a pariah. But the society remains strikingly two tiered: Few nations have a greater disparity between the incomes of their richest and their poorest. *502 RAND $63 PER PERSON PER MONTH. PERCENTAGES DO NOT EQUAL 100 BECAUSE OF ROUNDING. Indian/Asian 0.2% Below 47% Above 52% Indian/Asian 2.4% Population above and below the poverty line* 2008 6% 9% Black 44% Black 35% Mixed race (Coloured) Mixed race 2.5% White White 0.1% "WORK, BREAD, WATER, AND SALT FOR ALL" Nelson Mandela's 1994 presidential inaugural address spoke to basic dignities widely lacking under apartheid. During that era of extreme segregation, blacks---now 79 percent of the country's population of 49 million---were progressively stripped of civil rights. They were assigned to ethnic homelands, slated to become independent so that South Africa could be a white-majority nation. The millions living in black town- ships outside homelands, a workforce crucial to the economy, had to carry passbooks. South Africa's first democratic national election, which brought Nelson Mandela to office, dissolved the homelands and created nine provinces to help bridge ethnic groups.