National Geographic : 1938 Jul
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Ridge and Alleghenies, where pioneer days are recalled by isolated log cabins. In the rich, self-contained valleys between them distinctive local customs persist. Tidewater Virginia is very different in its aspects and agriculture from the Old Do minion's Piedmont region or the verdant Shenandoah Valley. "The Valley's" travel and trade are more with its extensions northward into Mary land and Pennsylvania, whence many of its early settlers came, than with Tidewater Virginia. Western Maryland shops and sells in Winchester, Harrisburg, York, and Baltimore; the State's "panhandle people" have little dealing with the Eastern Shore. TWO FAMOUS BOUNDARIES Cutting across the map are two famous boundaries. One is the Mason and Dixon Line, accurately surveyed more than 150 years ago by two Englishmen. The other is the Potomac River, which cleaved North and South during civil strife, but now sym bolizes a united nation by such historic shrines as Mount Vernon, Arlington, Wake field, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, and our country's Capital City. Delaware's northern boundary discloses the only part of a circle used anywhere in the United States as a State boundary. Designed by C. E. Riddiford, the 10-color map is framed by a decorative border unit ing top and bottom friezes of miniature drawings alternately depicting memorable scenes and illustrious people of the region. Hashime Murayama, Geographic staff art ist, prepared the sketches. The pen-and-ink portraits portray Wash ington, Madison, Monroe, Jefferson, Frank lin, Captain John Smith, and Edgar Allan Poe. Less familiar faces are those of Mat thew Fontaine Maury, pioneer oceanic geographer who was first to chart Atlantic coastal currents and winds, and J. P. G. Muhlenberg, Lutheran clergyman, Revolu tionary general, and legislator. Then there are Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, who ruled but never visited Maryland; John Marshall, "most notable of American jurists"; Cyrus H. McCormick, inventor of the reaper; and Walter Reed, distinguished Army doctor who helped eradicate yellow fever. Scenes in the decorative border show the battlefield at Gettysburg, site of a memo rable victory and Lincoln's immortal ad dress; Valley Forge, zenith of Washington's courage in the Revolution's darkest hour; Mount Vernon, where a hero's home rather than ornate memorial or luxurious edifice has become the Nation's beloved shrine; and Independence Hall, where men signed the Declaration that set America free and chartered democracy in many other lands. Also depicted are the White House, oldest public structure in Washington; the revered Tomb of the Unknown Soldier; the gracious Rotunda of the University of Vir ginia, and the venerable State House at Annapolis, where Washington resigned his commission as Commander-in-Chief (1783) when Annapolis was temporarily the na tional capital. Other sketches portray an old Dutch house in Delaware, a truck garden of that tiny State which is a giant food producer, a fox-hunting scene in the Piedmont horse country of Virginia, oystermen plying their "rakes" along the Chesapeake's shores, and the queen of the annual Apple Blossom Festival at Winchester, Virginia. Appropriate symbols locate on the map significant battlefields, notable ruins, churches, sites, and monuments, historic shrines, fine architecture, racing and hunt ing centers. Parks and recreational areas are shown in pink; black-and-white "name plates" tag the counties. The long, unbroken mountain ridges seem to rise in bold relief. By a bird's-eye perspective method, newly developed by J. J. Brehm, of the National Geographic So ciety's map department, each ridge, peak, gap, and deep-cut river valley stands out as if viewed from an airplane. Brief statements of events in many places and their dates furnish headlines and date lines for stirring chapters of American his tory in this area. How many newspaper extras and movie newsreels would the mo mentous news stories here spotted require if they happened in our time! The map has been planned for artistic beauty and is suitable for framing. It is offered as a comprehensive chart, equiva lent to many pages of a gazetteer and a history. Primarily, it will serve as authoritative guide to the multitude of pilgrims who visit Washington, whether they traverse their Capital's environs by railroads (black lines), highways (red lines), ferryboats (dotted red lines), or in imagination where many of the place names will stir memories and arouse patriotic pride.