National Geographic : 1900 Feb
GEOGRAPHIC MIS'CELLANEA enclosure, which is peculiarly sensitive to all the phenomena of the surround ing country, and also to the slightest disturbance from the sea. The observa tory will thus have a maritime as well as a meteorological value. THE project of maintaining the level of Lake Erie near its high-water stage during the navigation season by constructing a dam across Niagara River be low Buffalo harbor is reported by the Deep Water Ways Commission as practi cable and desirable. Thus the water lost by evaporation in summer could be partially replaced by accumulating the surplus water during the closed season and releasing it when most necessary in the open season. The best location for a dam is, according to the board, at the foot of the lake, just below Buffalo harbor. A canal with a lock is provided on the American side around the end of the dam and the rapids at the head of the river. The cost of the regulating works is estimated at $796,923, and of the lock and canal at $2,325,967. The changes would raise the low-water stage about three feet in Lake Erie, two feet in Lake St Clair, and one foot in Lake Huron. THIC U. S . Commercial Agent at Vladivostock, Mr Richard T. Greener, reports that it is proposed to turn the military port of Vladivostock into a commercial port, making it the principal terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Port Arthur will then become the chief military port of eastern Siberia. Talienwan, which has been renamed " Dalny," will be the commercial port, and an "open" one, of the Pechili Gulf. Every effort will be made to make it an important trade center. The plans of streets, government buildings, etc., are already form ulated and will be put in execution, while the construction of the various lines of railroad is also being pushed to completion. The plan of the Russian gov ernment to form an eastern Asiatic steamship company to open communication between Port Arthur, the Manchurian Railroad, Vladivostock, and other ports of the Far East is now arranged. The service between Vladivostock and Port Arthur will soon be begun. THE Manual of Tides now being prepared in the Coast and Geodetic Survey Office by Dr R. A . Harris will discuss, among other subjects, the tidal theory. So far as the study of the tidal oscillations in the great oceanic basins has progressed, it tends to show that the dominating tides of most localities owe their origin to one of two methods of generation. The first is that implied in the corrected equilibrium theory, and pertains to rather small and well enclosed bodies of water ; the second, and far more important, method is that implied in stationary oscillations whose free periods approximately coincide with the periods of the tidal forces. As an example of these oscillating areas may be cited the region lying south of the Maine coast, from Nantucket to the southern end of Nova Scotia. Following a line, somewhat convex, toward the south, joining these two points, there appears to be a small tidal disturbance, probably not more than two feet, whereas along the entire New England coast, north of Nantucket, the tides are in the neighborhood of from eight to ten feet. Moreover, on this nodal line just mentioned, running from Nantucket to Nova Scotia, the currents are well pronounced, so that it appears that we have here an area which oscil lates about the nodal line as an axis, thus producing high water at practically the same time along the New England coast.