National Geographic : 1900 Mar
116 ICE-CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY both cases, and that the latter as well as the former are underlain by masses of ice. When the face of the cliffs, as in the first two instances, was toward the south, the powerful action of the sun's rays during the long sub arctic summer days of the region had made its effects very apparent on the upper portion of the cliffs, both of which were to a great ex tent hidden by talus, slopes of earth, muck, uprooted trees, and brush, this latter a factor that made their detection from midstream much less likely. The face of the third cliff, being toward the north, was perpendicular, its base washed by the stream, and was without any talus whatever. All of them under present conditions are undoubt edly undergoing a process of rapid diminution. I think it more than likely that both the Kuskokwim and Tanana rivers will, on examination, reveal ice-masses of a similar nature to those on the Kowak and White, though no mention of such being observed is made either by Hallock * or Allen.t When such are found, if any, they may enable the geologist to determine the real nature and cause of these bodies of ice, if the above theory of their being the remnants of buried glaciers is not accepted. The main stream of White River and the Katrina or west branch both take their rise among the glaciers of a range of snow peaks lying east of and approximately parallel to the Coast Range, in Alaska, not far from the sources of the Tanana and Copper rivers, while the east branch (Klotassin River of the maps) is non-glacial and has its source in a number of small affluents in Yukon Territory. The water of the Klotassin is as clear as crystal, whereas the water of the main stream and the Katrina is almost milky white, thus giving rise to the name White River (first applied by Robert Campbell, of the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1850, and called Milk River by the early miners). Ladue Creek, on the other hand, which enters from the west some 36 miles above the mouth and takes its rise in the tundra and sphagnous marshes near the headwaters of Sixtymile River, is of a decided brown, being about the color of fairly strong tea. The main river is rather more than 300 miles long, following the course of the stream, and has no rapids worthy of the name, but there are a cation and rapids five miles long on the west branch about 60 miles above the conflu ence. The country is dotted with lakes and lakelets in the vicinity * NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, vol. IX, p. 85: " Two hundred miles up the Kuskokwim,', Charles Hallock, March, 1898. t Reconnaissance in Alaska, Lieut. H . T. Allen. Washington, 1887.