National Geographic : 1900 May
FRANK HAMILTON CUSHING Frank Hamilton Cushing died at his residence in Washington, D. C., on April 10, 1900. From his boyhood he had been the friend and student of the Amer ican Indian. In 1875, when only 18 years of age, he was commissioned by Pro fessor Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, to make collections for the National Museum. The years of 1879-1885 he lived among the Zuni Indians of New Mexico, he learned their language and traditions, and was initiated into their esoteric priesthood and elected their war chief. Thus he was able to learn the character of Indian secret societies. Mr Cushing discovered the ruins of the Seven Cities of Cibola in 1881, and later conducted excavations among them and the great buried cities of southern Arizona. In 1895 he discovered extensive remains of a sea-dwelling people on the gulf coast of Florida, and the following year led an expedition thither. At the time of his death he was promi nently connected with the Bureau of American Ethnology. He was the author of numerous monographs and papers on the myths and customs of the Zuni and the prehistoric races of New Mexico, Arizona, and the Southern States. GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE The International Geography. By seventy authors. Edited by Hugh Robert Mill. Svo, pp. 20 + 1088, with 488 illustrations. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1900. $3.00 . This book is a terse and comprehensive description of the earth and of the various countries of which it is composed. It is divided into several parts, of which the first relates to the earth as a whole, with chapters on principles and progress of geography, mathematical geography, maps, plan of the'earth, nature and origin of land forms, the ocean, atmosphere and climate, the distribution of life, and political and applied geography. Succeeding parts are devoted to descriptions of continents and countries. These, as well as the chapters of Part I, were written by different authorities, and the result, owing doubtless to excellent planning and able editing, is fairly uniform. Here and there the personality or bias of a writer appears, but not often or obtrusively. The apportionment of space among the various countries is very well arranged : To the United States are assigned 64 pages, to Canada 25, to Great Britain 59, to France 22, and to Germany 32. The list of authors includes such names as Bryce, on Natal, the Transvaal, and Orange Free State; Chisholm, on Europe and China; Davis, on North America and the United States; Keane, Keltie, Lapparent, Markham, Murray, Nansen, and Penck. The descriptions of countries are brief, succinct, and encyclopedic in form, though not in arrangement, and each is followed by tables giving summary statistics of areas, population, and industries. As a book of reference this work is of great value.