National Geographic : 1900 Aug
330 FOREIGNERS AND FOREIGN FIRMS IN CHINA Toluca; post-office and railroad station, Los Angeles County, Cal. (Not Lankershim.) Whiting; post-office and railroad station, Ocean County, N. J. (Not Whit ing's.) FOREIGNERS AND FOREIGN FIRMS IN CHINA There were more Americans resident in the Chinese treaty ports in 1899 than there were persons of any other nationality except English and Japanese. Of the 17,193 foreigners of all nations living last year in the Chinese treaty ports 2,335 were Americans and 5,562 English. The Japanese numbered 2,440, the Russians 1,621, the Portuguese 1,423, the French 1,183, the Germans 1,134, the Spanish 448, the Scandinavians 422, the Belgians 234, the Italians 124, the Dutch 106, and all others 161. Foreigners living in Port Arthur, Hongkong, and other ports ceded to European powers are not included in this category. The Russians have recently been entering China in greater numbers than any other nationality. In 1898 there were only 165 Russians in the treaty ports, while one year later there were as many as 1,621, an increase of 882 per cent during twelve months. The number of English rose 414, of Americans 279, of Japanese 742, of French 263, and of Germans 91. In 1899 there were 70 Amer ican firms doing business in these ports, an increase of 27 over the preceding year. Of French firms there were 76, an increase of 39 in one year, and of Japa nese 195, an increase of 81. The English were about stationary, having 398 firms in 1898 and 401 in 1899. The Germans had 115 firms, the Portuguese 10, the Belgians 9, the Italians 9, and other nationalities 29. It is a curious fact that there were only 19 Russian firms in all these ports. In 1898 there were 165 Russians and 16 business houses. One year later the number of Russians had risen to 1,621, but of Russian business houses there were only 19. The principal treaty ports, of which there are about 30, are Canton, with a population of probably two millions; Tientsin, with about one million; Han kau, with 800,000; Shanghai, with over 400,000; Chifu, with 35,000; Amoy, with 100,000; Niuchwang, with 60,000; Fuchau, with 650,000, and Swatow, with 35,000. THE Chinese farmer is the most economical of all tillers of the soil. In South China he reaps at least two and usually three or four harvests every year, but in spite of such constant draining the soil is as fertile as it was thousands of years ago. He saves everything for fertilizer. Everywhere are open, odorous vats, steaming with the soaked refuse of straw, vegetable ends, leaves, and bits that can serve for nothing else. When the mass is thoroughly decayed the water is drained off in buckets and poured over the growing rice. The sediment that settles in canals is minutely scraped up, dried, and scattered over the fields. The pigsty is cleaned only once in so often, because a too frequent cleaning would impair the quality of the filth. Even the dust and sweepings of the house are hoarded by the wife, who expects to get enough from their sale to keep herself supplied with brooms.