National Geographic : 1900 Dec
470 THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY be explored and prospected. The reasons why the gold deposits in the Philippines have never been exploited or properly utilized are so many and so varied that no adequate relation of them can be given within the limits of a magazine article. Some of them are, however, summarized in the following extract from Foreman's book :* "As a general rule, failure in most Philippine mining speculations, no doubt, was due to the unwillingness of the natives to cooperate with European capi talists, and in this they found encouragement from the friars, who were averse to innovation of any kind. The native, too, in rural districts, would not sub mit to constant organized and methodical labor at a daily wage, to be paid periodically when he had finished his work. The class of natives whom one had to employ in the neighborhood of the mines was nomadic and half-sub jected, whilst there was no legislation whatever in operation, regulating the relations between workers and capitalists. Indeed, the latter were quite at the mercy of the former, whose indolence entirely overcame their cupidity, so long as their immediate necessities were satisfied." . . . "Again, the wretched means of communication provided by the Spanish Government obliged the few enterprising capitalists to spend their money on the construc tion of roads which had already been paid for in taxes." It is to be hoped that after centuries of oppression, misrule, apathy, and neglect a better and brighter day is dawning for these beautiful islands, when their abundant stores of mineral and vegetal wealth will be developed and utilized, when both capital and labor will be encouraged and protected, not only in the interest of the former, but to the immeasurable benefit and advancement of the people who will supply the latter. THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS By RICHARD E. DODGE, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York One of the perplexing problems of supervisors and superintendents of schools and of all others who have to plan and set in operation an effective school curriculum is that of determining the position of physical geography in elementary school work. Five years ago edu cational leaders were as a rule willing and indeed eager to incorporate almost any amount of physical geography in their school courses * Op. cit., p. 384.