National Geographic : 1901 Jan
THE INFLUENCE OF SUBMARINE CABLES will be an accomplishment of the near future. With this extension of imperial cable added to her already extensive state owned land-line system, England will have the most complete telegraphic sys tem in existence, placing the following fortified and garrisoned coaling stations in direct connection each with any other, viz.: Hong Kong, Singapore, Trincoma lee, Colombo, Aden, Cape Town, Simons Bay, St. Helena, Ascension, Saint Lucia, Jamaica, Bermuda, Halifax, Esquimalt, King George's Sound, and Thursday Island. The following "'defended ports" would likewise be connected, viz.: Dur ban, Karachi, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Rangoon, Adelaide, Melbourne, Hobart, Sydney, Newcastle, Brisbane, Towns ville, Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton, and Dunedin. With the completion of the cable across the Pacific the last telegraphic gap will be completed around the earth. Great Britain will then have the great advan tage of duplicate routes, since from any point there will be two routes-one east and one west-to any other station. PROPOSED COLONIAL TELEGRAPH SYSTEM FOR THE UNITED STATES Since the events of the Spanish American War the supreme impor tance of exclusively controlled com munications, as a means of military and naval warfare, has been recognized as never before. All the principal nations are studying this subject in its various aspects, and already a distinct cable pol icy is entering into the politics of the principal countries possessing colonies and seeking for commercial, military, and naval supremacy. In this connection it may be of interest to note briefly what has been the tele graph policy of the United States in dealing with the territory of our new possessions. In Cuba and Porto Rico, and in the Philippine Archipelago, every effort has been made by the Signal Corps of the Army to cover the islands with a network of wires, so complete and re liable that intercommunication is insured at all times. In the pacification of Cuba and Porto Rico, in the suppression of the Philippine uprising, it is believed that there has been no more potent agent than the military telegraph. For years Spain had been trying to pacify the Island of Cuba, and yet her telegraph system was incomplete, obso lete, and unreliable in the extreme. It was possible for bands of insurgents to move about much at their pleasure, ap pearing here and there, with no means of locating or concentrating for their destruction. It was not that the number of troops was not sufficient, so much as that there were no efficient means of directing the troops in such a way as to make results decisive. TELEGRAPH SYSTEM IN CUBA AND PORTO RICO. Since the evacuation of Cuba by Span ish troops the land telegraph system has been entirely reconstructed by the United States Signal Corps, and now aggregates about 2,500 miles, including a central trunk line the entire length of the island, which is duplicated from Havana to Sancti Spiritus. In addition to this trunk line there are thirteen lines across the island, which divide it up into com paratively small sections. Every mile of these lines has been reconstructed, under great difficulties, yet their reliability is evidenced by the fact that the entire Porto Rican Government business, which is now transmitted over the new land lines from Havana to Santiago, was con ducted during the month of June, 1900, without a single interruption. In the Island of Porto Rico every im portant commercial or military point is in telegraph connection by a system of lines, which have also been entirely re constructed and the routes improved since the disastrous hurricane of August, 1899.