National Geographic : 1901 May
GEOGRAPHIC NOTES ALASKA THE narrative volume of the famous Harriman Alaska expedition of two summers ago will appear during the present month. Through the courtesy of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, editor of the vol ume and of the Harriman publications, the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE is able to present in this number one chapter from this remarkable work-The General Geography of Alaska, by Mr. Henry Gannett. So rapid has been the exploration of this vast territory during the past five years that few realize the extent of pres ent knowledge of the country. Mr. Gan nett, in his paper, gives the most com prehensive statement of the general geographic features as developed by recent exploration that has yet been published. The narrative of the Harriman expe dition is the most trustworthy and at the same time popular work on Alaska which has ever been offered to the pub lic. Mr. John Burroughs opens with the story of the two months' travel of the Harriman party. Mr. John Muir fol lows with a chapter on the Glaciers. Then Mr. George Bird Grinnell de scribes the Natives of the Alaskan Con tinent-the Indians and Eskimo. Dr. Wm. H. Dall gives the History of the Discovery and Exploration of Alaska. Mr. Charles A. Keeler has a chapter on the Birds of Alaska, Mr. B. E. Fernow on the Forests, and then follows Mr. Gannett's article on the General Geog raphy of Alaska. Dr. Merriam con tributes the concluding chapter on the Volcanoes of the Aleutian Archipelago. The bird pictures by Mr. Louis Fuertes, the plant pictures by Mr. Walpole, and the fiord scenes by Mr. Dellenbaugh form a notable feature of the volume. Twenty colored plates, over 100 full- page photogravures, and 200 insets illustrate this splendid work. Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co., of New York, are the publishers for Mr. Harriman. ANDORRA AND SAN MARINO T HE two states which look strang est upon the map of Europe are the tiny Republics of Andorra, in the eastern Pyrenees, and of San Marino, in northeastern Italy. Each owed its orig inal independence to its strong natural position; then for centuries the shrewd ness of its inhabitants knew how to play off one enemy against another. In mod ern times its neighbors have seemed to feel a sort of chivalric sentiment for it because it has taken care of itself so long. The Republic of Andorra has existed since the eighth century. When the Moslems invaded France from Spain in the eighth century that little territory in the mountains was not conquered by them and has remained independent ever since. It now enjoys the joint protec tion of France and of the Spanish Bishop of Urgel. Its extent is less than 175 square miles. Its hardly more than 6,000 inhabitants are almost all miners and farmers. It is governed by a rep resentative council of 24 persons, who are chosen by the heads of families. The Republic of San Marino, though having a population of about 10,000, is only one-fifth as large in area, but is still more ancient. In fact, it is the smallest and the oldest independent re public on the globe. It is governed by a Great Council of 60 members and a Minor Council of 12 members. It has an army of 938 men, and spends about $io,ooo annually on internal improve ments. On June 28, 1897, San Marino concluded a formal treaty of friendship with Italy.