National Geographic : 1902 Dec
ERUPTIONS ON MARTINIS concerning the interior of the earth. In this more pointedly, perhaps, than in related fields is the saying true that '' the known is but a small fraction of the unknown." In the study of the earth's interior, the search for the ulti mate causes of volcanic eruptions, etc., a visit to an active volcano is most in structive and suggestive, but such in vestigations should not end with the cessation of the outbreaks. The manifestations which reach the earth's surface and on which our judg ment as to the condition of its interior must be chiefly based are movements in the rocks, earthquakes, escape of heat, magnetic changes, etc. While several of the phenomena referred to become especially prominent during volcanic eruptions, they are not confined to such occurrences or to the vicinity of volcanic vents, but may be studied at all times and at any locality. Among the rec ords which it is desirable to obtain and from which some judgment in reference UE AND ST VINCENT 435 to the condition of the earth's interior may be had are the occurrence of earth quakes, their character, direction of motion, location, both geographical and vertical, of their centers and all else concerning them, and changes in the magnetic condition of the earth. Ob servations in these directions are highly desirable in the vicinity of volcanoes in order that they may serve as danger signals, but may yield valuable returns when carried on at a distance from all centers of volcanic disturbance. In this connection I wish to suggest that the National Geographic Society can make a substantial addition to our knowledge of the earth by maintaining a magnetic and seismographic observa tory. Let a start be made by placing in our Hubbard Memorial Building the best instruments of the nature just re ferred to that can be had, and extend assistance to individuals, colleges, etc., at as many other localities as practicable, in establishing similar observatories. LITERATURE The magazine articles, reports, etc., concern ing the recent eruptions in the Antilles, which I have seen, are as follows : ANDERSON, TE.II'rST, and J. S FLETT. '' Pre linxinarv report on the recent eruptions of the Soufriere in St Vincent, and of a visit to Mont Pelee, in Martinique." In Pro ceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 70, 1902, pp. 423-445. IBORC GI1;VGINK, C. F. "History's greatest disaster. " In rank Leslie's Popular Monthly, vol. liv, July, 1902. " Marti nique Supplement," pp. i-xvi. " LS COLNIES." " Life in the doomed city, As reflected in the leading newspaper of St Pierre, ' Les Colonies,' in its editions for May 1-7, the week previous to the disas ter." In the Century Magazine, vol. lxiv, August, 1902, pp. 618-633. CHIRCH, J. R . " The Martinique Pompeii." Scribner's Magazine, vol. xxxii, July, 1902, pp. 20o-20d. ' COI,r,IKR'S \WEEKLY." " Conditions at Mar tinique and St Vincent." In Collier's Il lustrated Weekly, vol. 29, June 17, 1902, pp. 8, 9, and 24. - [Illustrations from Martinique and St Vincent.] In Collier's Illustrated Weekly, vol. 29, June 21, 1902, pp. 6-7 . DASSETT, J. H. " Volcanic eruptions in the island of St Vincent, West Indies." Pamphlet printed in Kingstown, St Vin cent, May 12, 1902. DECKERT, E. ' Martinique und sein Volka nismus." In Petermann's Geogr. Mitte lungen, 1902, heft vi. DILLER, J. S . " Volcanic rocks of Martinique and St Vincent." In the NATIONAl, GEO GRAPHIC MAGAZINE, vol. xiii, July, 1902, pp 285-296. FACONER, J. ).I "Volcanic dust from the West Indies." In Nature, vol. 66, June 5, 1902, pp. 130-132. FLETT, J. S. See Anderson. Tempest, and '' HARP ER'S WEEKLY." "'Thedestruction of St Pierre." In Harper's Weekly, vol. xlvi, June 7, 1902, pp. 716-717. HEII,PRIN, ANGE ,LO."Monte Pelee in its might." In McClure's Magazine, vol. xix, August, 1902, pp. 359-368. - " Mont Pelee and the ruins of St Pierre." In the Youth's Companion, vol. 76, Octo ber 2, 1902, pp. 471-472. HILLEBRAND, W. F. "Chemical discussion of analyses of volcanic ejecta from Marti nique and St Vincent." In the NATIONAL, GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, vol. xiii, July, 1902, pp. 296-299.