National Geographic : 1903 Jan
JADE bottom which accompany coral forma tions. ALASKA In Alaska, Cross Sound and Icy Straits have been surveyed and much work has been accomplished in Prince William Sound, which promises to become one of the most important regions commer cially in Alaska. During the last sea son two survey vessels were at work in that Sound. A chart of Fox Island Passes and the dangerous region of the Sannak Islands has been published. One of the surveying vessels was em ployed in a chronometric longitude ex pedition to determine respectively the geographical positions of the eastern end of St Lawrence and the western end of Nunivak Islands, and a success ful termination of the expedition has been announced. IN THE PHILIPPINES In the Philippines most gratifying pro- gress has been made under the direction of Mr. George R. Putnam, a gifted and energetic officer of the Survey. An office was established at Manila, and it was organized to publish the prelimin ary results of the work accomplished with the least possible delay. The sub-office at Manila has published over thirty charts, many of them orig inal surveys. It has availed itself of the facilities afforded by the cable and telegraph lines recently established and has determined the telegraphic longi tude of the principal ports of the archi pelago. Tidal and magnetic observa tions have been made and sailing direc tions have be:l printed in pamphlet form in addition to the continued issue of Notices to Mariners which were given to the public with great expedition. A small ship called the Research was pro vided by the island authorities for the use of the survey, and a larger vessel has been actively engaged there for over a year. .DE BY S. E. EASTER JADE, which has been found in every part of the world-China, Burma, New Zealand, Alaska, Mexico, and central Europe-is the best illustration of the universal passion of all primitive peoples for the possession of green stones. From pre historic times to the last looting of Peking, jade has been a treasure most highly prized and eagerly sought. The most famous quarries of jade are those of the Karakash Valley, in Chinese Turkestan, from which the chief sup plies of the Chinese Emperors were drawn. Much confusion has arisen from the too general application of the term " jade " to kindred mineral substances, such as saussurite, chloromelanite, pec tolite, serpentine, and fibrolite or silli manite, and Dr Fischer has collected one hundred and fifty specimens of stones carelessly called jade. Properly speaking, jade only includes nepfrite, a variety of amphibole, andjadeite,one of the pyroxene group. Nephrite, which occurs more fre quently than jadeite,and the best-known quarries of which are those of Chinese Turkestan, is, according to Dana, a tough, compact, fine-grained tremolite (or, in green specimens, actinolite), breaking with a splintery fracture and glistening luster. Its specific gravity is.