National Geographic : 1903 Sep
EXPEDITION INTO TEXAS, 1675 They said that they were tired of wan dering through the mountains and dying like animals. On the 26th of January, 1675, there came to General Balcarcel Pablo, an Indian chief of the nation called Manos Prietas, and with him eight Indians of the Gueiquesales, the Bapacorapimancos, and Espopolames. These, being examined, said that they were Christians and had been baptized by Father Juan Larios, and they had come to make their submission to the king. On the 29 th of April, 1675, this same Indian Pablo came and brought with him 232 persons, great and small, as follows: 120 warriors, 65 women, and 47 boys and girls. They had come to ask to be placed in settlements, and said that they had left a, large number of their people congregated together toward the Rio del Norte; that they were very numerous; they could not tell how many. These were followed by other chiefs living beyond the Rio del Norte, all of whom asked to be placed in settlements and to have mis sionaries sent to them. General Balcarcel, having established his settlement of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de Estremadura, in Decem ber, 1674, commenced building a church, which was soon completed. Royal or ders had been issued to push the con quests as far as possible, and to gather the Indians together into settlements, where they might receive religious in struction, cultivate the soil, and live peaceably under the royal protection. General Balcarcel, in compliance with this order, determined to send an expe dition, under military command, along with Father Juan Larios, who had been appointed and directed to proceed at once to the conversion of the barbarous Indians living beyond the Rio del Norte. The military commander of this expe dition was Fernando del Bosque, the royal standard-bearer, and Father Juan Larios, accompanied by Father Dioni sio San Buenaventura, both of the Franciscan order, was to have charge of all matters pertaining to the mis sionary purpose of the expedition. With these there were ten other Spaniards an interpreter of the Spanish and In dian languages, Don Lazaro Augustin, himself an Indian, and Juan de la Cruz, of the Boboles, his ensign, and 20 others of his tribe who were most faithful to the Spaniards, and 1oo warriors of the Gueiquesale tribe accompanied the ex pedition. They were ordered by General Bal carcel to proceed to the Nadadores, and beyond as far as the Sierra Dacate, and to instruct the Indians to plough their lands and to cultivate them, and live in dustriously, and they should go to such places as the good service of their majes ties required, and they should instruct the Indians in the Holy Catholic re ligion, and should take royal possession of all parts of the country visited, and take note of the longitude of the rivers, and of the trees, forests, and mountains, and should count the people, great and small-men, women, and children. JOURNAL OF FERNANDO DEL BOSQUE, ROYAL STANDARD-BEARER, IN COM MAND OF THE EXPEDITION April 30, I675. - Left the town of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe of this province in obedience to the order of the alcalde maior, Don Antonio Balcarcel Riva de Neira Sotomayor; traveled along the river below the town toward the north, and having reached a place called Pajarito, on the river, about six leagues from the town, we found it un possessed and without any signs of hav ing been recently inhabited. We took possession of it in the name of the king our master, Don Carlos II, whom God defend, and in sign of possession we erected a high wooden cross, and at this place we saw many fish in the river and caught some. We gave it the name of San Felipe de Jesus. May 2, I675. -On the first of May 34'