National Geographic : 1903 Nov
MINING BUREAU OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 419 ington in 1901. This report was sup plemented by a visit of inspection to the principal known coal deposits by Lieut. Edward M. Markham, Corps of Engi neers, U. S. A., under directions of the Secretary of War. As the result of these investigations and reports, the western portion of the Island of Batan was recommended and selected for gov ernmental experiments, and this work is now in progress with every prospect of success. In 1902 a field party was organized and sent out from this Bureau to make a reconnoissance of the well-known iron region of Angat, Bulacan, and to sub mit a report thereon as a basis upon which to institute and build up a sys tematic geological and mineralogical survey of the archipelago and to dis seminate such information as to the mineral resources and other conditions as to enable capital to be intelligently directed in the mining industry. Mr Hiram D. McCaskey, B. S., and the mining engineer of this Bureau, a grad uate of the Lehigh School of Mines, was placed at the head of this expedi tion, and his report on "A Geological Reconnoissance of the Iron Region of Angat, Bulacan," a work of 62 pages, with 14 maps, sketches, and tables and 41 half-tone illustrations, has just been issued as " Bulletin No. 3 " of this Bu reau and from the Bureau of Public Printing of the Government of the Phil ippines. This work covers a brief de scription of the class and character of the field work, with subdivision, phys ical and geographical, geological, litho logical, and mineralogical; with a well illustrated description of the iron-mining industry as carried on by the natives and which is one of the oldest mining industries of this archipelago. The Zufiiga theory of the Taal volcano is discussed at length, and the authorities upon that subject are carefully com pared. In addition to the iron deposits, the author has also treated of the gold, graphite, and lignite deposits of that region, and has also added a chapter on lime-burning. The tables of analyses of ores are very complete, and the prac tical questions of labor and transporta tion are fully presented. The famous mineral springs of Bulacan are also de scribed. The Bureau has also issued a bulletin (No. i) on " Platinum and the Associ ated Rare Metals in Placer Formations" for the use of miners and prospectors. This completes the publications of the Bureau, but it represents only a small portion of the work that has been done by the Bureau. Questions of titles have constantly arisen, and the manuscript reports on this line make several large volumes. The mining engineer has made a careful study of both the geo logical and economic conditions so far as the same could be learned from the voluminous records and archives, as well as from prospectors and miners, and scientific expeditions have been made to Culion and Paragua, with pre liminary reports thereon. These expe ditions, which were only cursory, to gether with the field work in Bulacan and the study of the archives and rec ords, have enabled this Bureau to frame and recommend to the U. S. Philippine Commission a proposition for the reor ganization of this Bureau, transferring all titles to the Bureau of Public Lands, in order that titles on mineral lands may be more economically administered, and placing this Bureau in a condition to take up the work of (a) geological and mineralogical surveys and studies and (b) the promotion and encourage ment of the mining industries, the work in the future to follow along the lines of state geological bureaus or state bu reaus of mines in the United States. That there is an urgent demand for this reorganization, and that under it the mining industry will be promoted and in a reasonable time become an impor tant factor in these islands, the writer has no doubt, while the field of geolog ical research is one of untold wealth.