National Geographic : 1904 Mar
PLACE NAMES IN EASTERN ASIA T HE breaking out of the war between Russia and Japan is bringing trouble to every household in the land, for the place names of Korea and Man churia are spelled differently by different news papers and on different maps. These names in the native tongue are written in characters different from those which we employ, and have been transliterated into roman characters by different persons in different ways; hence the widely varying forms which are seen. It is not generally known that a system of trans literation of such names has been adopted by most European nations, by Canada, and by this country-a system which is simple, easy of application, and which, if generally followed, reduces these variations of spelling to a mini mum. This plan is published in the report of the U. S . Board on Geographic Names, and is here republished for ready reference. RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION a has the sound of a in father. ehasthesoundofeinmen. ihasthesoundofiinravine orof eeinbeet. o has the sound of o in mote. u has the sound of oo in boot. ai has the sound of i in ice. au has the sound of ow in how. ao is slightly different from above. ei has the sound of the two Italian vowels, but is frequently slurred over, when it is scarcely distinguishable from ey in the En glish they. c is always soft and has nearly the sound of s. Hard cis given byk. ch is always soft, as in church. fas in English; ph should not be used for this sound. g is always hard. (Soft g is given byj.) h is always pronounced when inserted. j as in English; dj should never be put in for this sound. k as in English; it should always be used for hard c. kh has the sound of the oriental guttural. gh is another guttural, as in the Turkish. ngzhas two slightly different sounds, as in finger, singer. q should never be employed; qu is given by kw. y is always a consonant, as in yard, and should not be used for the vowel i. The U. S. Board on Geographic Names has passed upon only a few of these names of east ern Asia. Among them are Amur, Chemulpo, Korea, Seoul, Manchuria, and Tokyo. Of the names already in common use in connection with the seat of war, the following forms should be employed in accordance with the rules above quoted: Mukden, Yalu, Sungari, Chefu, and Fusan. H. G. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8 p. m., Friday, February 26. -National Rifles Armory. "Travels in Arabia and Along the Persian Gulf." Mr David G. Fairchild. Illus trated. 4.40 p. m., Saturday, February 27.- Colum bian University. "The Argentine Republic." Mr Charles M. Pepper. 8 p. m., Friday, March 4.- Cosmos Club. " The Work of the National Bureau of Stand ards." Dr G. M. Stratton. 4.40 p. m., Saturday, March 5. -Columbian University. " San Domingo." Mr Percy King. Illustrated. 8 p. m., Friday, March 11. -National Rifles Armory. " Little Known Peoples of Mexico." Dr Carl Lumholtz. Illustrated. 4.40 p. m., Saturday, March 12.-Columbian University. "Brazil." 8 p. m., Friday, March 18.-Hubbard Me morial Hall. "The Work of the U. S. Bio logical Survey." Dr C. Hart Merriam. 4.40 p. m., Saturday, March 19.-Columbian University. "Peru." Hon. Manuel Alvarez Calderon, E. E. and M. P. from Peru. Illus trated. 8 p. m., Friday, March 25.-National Rifles Armory. "The Louisiana Purchase Exposi tion." President D. R. Francis. Illustrated. 4.40 p. m., Saturday, March 26. -Columbian University. " Chile." 8 p. m., Friday, April 1. -Hubbard Memorial Hall. "A Journey Across Mindanao." Alonzo H. Stewart. Illustrated. 4.40 p. m., Saturday, April 2.-Columbian University. "Colombia and Venezuela." Hon. F. B . Loomis, Assistant Secretary of State.