National Geographic : 1904 Sep
364 THE NATIONAL GE mathematics, law, economics, book keeping, elementary fisheries, technol ogy, and English. The department of fisheries technology has special instruc tion in marine food products, marine industrial products, bacteriology, ap plied mechanics, industrial chemistry, chemical mechanics, applied zoology, applied botany, law, economics, book keeping, and English. In the depart ment of pisciculture the subjects are fresh-water culture, salt-water culture, protection of fish, embryology, bacteri ology, oceanography, chemistry, applied zoology, applied botany, law, economics, book-keeping, and English. Provision is made for postgraduate investigations and for various special technical inqui ries. The institute has an annual income from the government amounting to $70,000. Its numerous graduates obtain excellent positions as directors of fish ing, fish curing, and fishcultural estab lishments. The Japanese Fisheries So ciety deserves mention. It was organ ized about twenty-five years ago, and has done excellent work directly and in coSperation with the government. It publishes a monthly journal, and has 4,979 members. While the Japanese high-sea fisheries (cod, whales, halibut, fur seals) are im portant, as are the river and lake re sources, it is the shore fisheries alone that give to Japan its unique position as a fishing nation. Of the most valuable products, many are identical with ours. The principal difference in the fisheries of the two countries is the relative extent to which particular species are utilized. Herring is the king of fishes in Japan, just as it is in some European countries and in the OGRAPHIC MAGAZINE world, considered as a whole. This fish is worth $4,000,000 yearly to the Japa nese, and is particularly abundant in the northern provinces. Next in importance comes the sardine, valued at $3,700,000; it is extensively canned, and is also eaten fresh and sun dried. Their bonito, very similar to ours, ranks third in value, the annual sales being $2,000,000. It is prepared in a peculiar way, and is al ways kept on hand as an emergency ration in Japanese houses. A fish sim ilar to our scup or red snapper, and known as "tai," is the favorite for fresh consumption, and is worth about $2,000,000 yearly. Other prominent products are mackerel,valued at $i ,ooo, ooo; tunny or horse mackerel, $900,000; amber fish or yellow tail, $i,ooo,ooo; squid and cuttle fish, $1,500,ooo; ancho vies, $800,000; prawn, $700,000, and salmon, $600,000. The Japanese have no fisheries com parable with our shad, alewife, menha den, striped bass, white fish, pike, perch, lake trout,soft crabs, sponge, and lobster. Their oyster and clam fisheries are insignificant by comparison with ours, and so, too, are their salmon, mullet, cod, and halibut. On the other hand, our herrings, sardine, anchovy, yellow tail, tunny, squid, prawn, aba lone,shark, and bonito and seaweed fish eries are trivial compared with theirs, and we have no cuttlefish,sea cucumber, or coral fisheries. The recent growth of the Japanese coral industry has been marked, and the Mediterranean corals, which for centuries have monopolized the world's markets, have already taken second place. Much of the Italian out put of coral ornaments is now made from imported Japanese raw products.