National Geographic : 1904 Nov
GEOGRAPH smaller amount, because the weather was bad and there were some bad slides, which broke up some of the excavators. We cut the unit cost of excavating ma terial in July to 6o0 cents per cubic yard; in August to 50 cents per cubic yard. During the time Major Black was in charge there the French cost was 79 cents per cubic yard. One month we cut the cost down to 45 cents, but that was due to there being no rock excavations."' A cablegram from Christiania states that the Duke of Orleans has asked per mission of the Norwegian government to hire the Fram, in which Dr Nansen made his voyage to the Arctic regions, for the purpose of an Arctic expedition in 1905. Emigration from Italy to the United States. - The Italian Commissioner General of Emigration has urged the Chamber of Deputies to make special appropriations for those districts in Italy which are sending out the largest num ber of immigrants. His object is to es tablish additional schools in the " emi grant " districts in order to teach the illiterate adults to read and write, so that if an illiteracy clause is inserted in our immigration laws by Congress, the num ber of Italians going to the United States may not be cut down. At the present time the economic welfare of large sec tions of southern Italy depends, says the Commissioner of Emigration, on their being able to send their extra laborers abroad, particularly to the United States. If the United States should suddenly refuse to admit immi grants who do not read or write, at least half of the Italians aiming for the United States would be unable to enter and would be forced back on their over crowded homes. It is estimated that in 1901 there were 3,439,014 Italians liv ing abroad, of whom 654,000 were scat tered over Europe; 168,000 were in IC NOTES 455 Africa (Tunis, 83,000; Algeria, 39,000; Egypt, 38,000); 745,000 were in North America (729,000 in the United States and ii,ooo in Canada), and 1,852,000 were in South America (618,000 in Ar gentina and I,1oo,ooo in Brazil). That Russia is a complete world in her self; that she possesses in her own mines, forests, and fields enough to satisfy her every want; that she ought to manu facture out of these possessions every thing that her people need, and that she could do so if her tariff was high enough is the dominant theme of a recent speech of Mr Witte. Consul Monaghan has sent over an abstract of this speech, which contains the following figures to show the present extent of some of her manufacturing industries: Number Number V Name of industry. of fac- of em- Value o tories. ployees. output. Metal ....................... 5,824 758,644 $362,753,125 Textile.................. 4,449 642,520 487,342,440 Food stuff..... ......... 16,512 255,357 333,779,740 Leather.................. 4,238 64,418 68,009,870 Wood .................... 2,357 86,273 52,982,685 Ceranic........ ......... 3,413 143,291 42,533,850 Chemical .................. 769 35,320 30,670,825 Paper........................ 532 46,190 23,427,350 Maps of Manchuria.-The German gov ernment has recently issued a series of map sheets of Manchuria showing the scene of war. The sheets show in de tail the rivers and streams, the moun tains and mountain passes, and the roads and trails. The French government has also issued map sheets of the same region. The two series are striking evi dence of the confusion of our knowledge of Manchuria and Korea. For instance, the spelling of places is so different that they are almost unrecognizable-i. e., Chemulpo is spelled Tschemulpo on the German map and Tche-moul Po on the French map. Now that all nations are so intimately and jointly interested in world events, they ought to decide on uniform spelling of geographic names.